Mosaic pavement of a 6th century synagogue at ...
Mosaic pavement of a 6th century synagogue at Beit Alpha, Jezreel Valley, northern Israel. It was discovered in 1928. Signs of the zodiac surround the central chariot of the Sun (a Greek motif), while the corners depict the 4 "turning points" ("tekufot") of the year, solstices and equinoxes, each named for the month in which it occurs--tequfah of Tishrei, (tequfah of Tevet), tequfah of Ni(san), tequfah of Tamuz - via Wikipedia

By Rabbi Allen S. Maller

For more than 1.000 years all the world’s major calendars have included a date for the year as well as the month and day. This seems  normal to us but for most of recorded  history calendars only recorded  the month and day. The year was counted from the start of the rule of a king or a dynasty. When the next king or dynasty came along, a new count was started again. Only major religions that last for many centuries can produce a calendar that will outlast individual political states and empires. Thus, all the world’s major calendars today are religious.

January the first will begin the Christian epoch year 2012. The Jewish epoch year, 5772, began on the evening of September 28, 2011. Christians know their calendar starts from the birth of Jesus. Muslims know the Muslim calendar begins with the escape of Muhammad from rejection and persecution in Makka to the opportunity of Medina. Buddhists know that their calendar starts with the enlightenment of Siddhartha under a Bodhi tree.  But most Jews would be hard pressed  to explain what happened  5,772 years ago to start the Jewish calendar.

By analogy to the Christian, Muslim, or Buddhist calendars one might expect that the Jewish calendar starts with the birth of Abraham (the first Jew), or from the Exodus  from Egypt (the trans-formative experience of the Jewish people), or from the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai (the enlightenment of the Jewish people). But the second century Rabbis who made up the epoch calendar Jews currently use, chose to begin with Adam and Eve i.e. the beginning of human civilization.

The word Adam in Hebrew means  mankind/Homo Sapiens– the species.  The exit of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden symbolizes  the transition of humanity from a largely nomadic/neolithic stone age society of hunter-gatherers to a more advanced metal working bronze age society of farmers and village dwellers.  By starting the Jewish calendar with  a historical transition that would have a universal impact on all of human society,  the second century rabbis followed the lead of the Bible, which begins not with Judaism, but with the origin of farming, village civilization and recorded history.

All historical dates that are derived from written records will fit into the Jewish calendar. The earliest writing comes from the Mesopotamian city of Uruk (Genesis 10:10) and dates to about 5,500 years ago i.e. the third century of the Jewish calendar. The first dynasty in Egypt arose in the 7th century of the Jewish calendar and the first stone pyramid in the 10th century. The famous king Sargon of Akkad (2371-2316 BCE) lived in the 14th century of the Jewish calendar. Abraham was not born till the 21th century of the Jewish calendar. It is only in the generations after Abraham that Biblical history begins to focus on the religious development of one specific people.

The Jewish calendar is not only the oldest of the world’s calendars, it is the only one that begins with the beginning of recorded human history. Everything prior to the Jewish calendar is prehistory. History begins with Adam and Eve.

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