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The History of Tattoos

by Becky McClure

The word, Tattoo, comes from the Polynesian word, “tatao” which means “to tap” or “to mark something.”Captain James Cook introduced this word to the English during his voyage around the world in 1769. Captain Cook and his crew of the ship, The Endeavour, were welcomed with open arms by the friendly and uninhibited Tahitians (yeah, that means many of them were naked.) Since the weather was very warm on the island, clothing was optional.

The Tahitians tried to look their best by decorating their bodies. But the fact of the matter was the application of tattoos, which was painful. It was done by dipping a sharp-pointed comb into lampblack and then hammering it into the skin. Nonetheless, everybody did it.

A woman showing images tattooed or painted on ...

A woman showing images tattooed or painted on her upper body, 1907. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

As word of tattooing in Tahiti and other Polynesian islands spread, the European sailors began to get tattooed themselves. This probably illustrated why tattoos were looked upon with such a lack of credibility in the early days and were considered as a kind of thing suitable for drunkards, sailors and criminals.

Modern archeology has uncovered the practice of tattoos in many ancient cultures all over the world.

In 1992, in the Alps between the border of Austria and Italy, a perfectly preserved body of a man was found. He was estimated to have lived 5,000 years ago! And he had 58 tattoos all over his body.

Mummies from the ancient Egyptians had tattoos.

Clay figurines found in Japan dated 3,000 years ago were engraved with tattoo marks.

The ancient Greeks and Romans used tattoos to identify slaves and criminals.

But tattooing has only become acceptable in the mainstream society recently. Tattoo shops and parlors were nothing more than wretched hives of scum and villainy, located in the seediest parts of most towns have undergone significant changes.

English: Tattos of Cross on Croatian women in ...

English: Tattos of Cross on Croatian women in Bosnia and Herzegovina were defence from Ottoman Turks Hrvatski: Tetovaže križa i ostalih kršćanskih simbola na hrvatskim ženama u Bosni i Hercegovini bile su obrana od Osmanlija. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Tattooing has really become popular with sports athletes. No one can forget the now-retired flamboyant NBA forward, Dennis Rodman, whose body was a tattooing canvas. A more current example is Allen Iverson of the Philly 76’ers. The tattooing trend is getting really popular in college basketball. And the trickle-down effect is appearing on high school athletes. Some old-fashion coaches forbidden any display of tattoos which meant some basketball players has to play with a t-shirt under their game jersey. Football fans can’t miss the barbed wire tattoos on the well-developed arms of football players.

The popular show, “Miami Ink,” from TLC is a reality-based show. The show’s popularity demonstrates just how mainstream the art of body art or “inking” has become. And it gives the viewers a look into the skill and history of both the artists and their customers.

Article Source: http://www.articleset.com


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Liminal and Liminoid

English: Rock concert at The Hexagon The band ...

Rock concert at The Hexagon The band are Jethro Tull, performing an acoustic number. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Expert from my blog… read more here

Browsing through my library, I recently found some interesting material on the idea of liminality. You’d think I’d know all about this concept; it’s right up my alley. But as things go, I’ve only made note of it until now.

Some quick research on Wiki produced these two links. I highly recommend them to anyone interested in religion and the related idea of numinosity. Of particular interest is the distinction anthropologist Victor Turner makes between the liminal and the liminoid. The one is structured and expected by society, and more like work (e.g. going to Church); the other is free and playful (e.g. going to a rock concert). But both apparently have similar effects. They transport you somewhere out of the ordinary.

This second link is an interview with Talal Asad. I was pleasantly surprised to discover his views on postmodernism and religion. I’ve been thinking about this for a long time. And it’s always great to find an “established” thinker who’s saying things that you’ve already thought about. It gives you a sense of reinforcement and encouragement. After all, a single innovative thinker is often ignored or marginalized (as has been my experience). More than one, however, and people begin to take notice.

Apart from my personal story, I really believe that humanity would benefit from using all of the intellectual tools we have at our disposal… especially with regard to religion and society.

—MC


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Confucianism – A General Summary of the Religion

Birthday anniversary of Confucius celebrated around China, Sept. 28, 2013. CultureInCart.com via Tumblr

By William Bailey

Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) is a well-known philosopher who is known for his work in governmental and personal morality, sincerity, justice, and the correctness of social relationships. He is known as a Chinese thinker and philosopher during the Spring and Autumn Periods, which corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771 to 476 BC).

Confucianism is an ancient Chinese religion with approximately 6 million followers worldwide, and named after the well-known philosopher, Confucius. The religion involves the worshiping of the spirits of the forefathers, the great God of Heaven, and the consecrating angles. In addition to the religious values and traditions that were inherited from their forefathers, Confucius added moral values and his own philosophy. The sum of these ideals equaled sound behavior, which is one of the main attributes of Confucianism.

Confucianism is centralized around the core concept of humanism. Humanism is a philosophy or practice that is based on human values and concerns. It’s believed that humans are able to improve themselves through teachings and self-creation. Confucianism focuses on the refinement of one’s ethics and personal virtue, specifically ren, yi, and li. Li deals with one’s overall demeanor within a community. Ren is caring for the welfare of others within one’s society, and Yi is the adherence to one’s moral principles that benefit the community from within. A true Confucianist must be willing to give their life while upholding their virtues and moral ethics. Confucianism doesn’t involve the belief of a God or the supernatural world, therefore is a non-theistic religion.

Confucianism originated in mainland China and spread throughout other territories including Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Themes of Confucian thought are elements such as modesty, reverence, righteousness, loyalty, honesty, shame, bravery, cleanliness, gentleness, frugalness, and kindheartedness.

Relationships are a key concept in the religion of Confucianism. There are numerous stages of relationships in one’s life. As a junior, one has relationships with parents and elders. Juniors owe reverence to their seniors. As a senior, one has relationships with juniors. Seniors are required to have loyalty and care for the welfare of juniors. This loyalty and feelings of benevolence are present, even in today’s East Asian’s society. This harmonic social class order is only possible when each individual of the society are both aware and plays a part in his or her social role.

A key concept within the Confucianist society is ‘The Great Learning’ teachings. The following six principles and key aspects are essential concepts of the religion:

  • Tao – Is a metaphysical concept meaning the underlying natural order of the universe, and the state of refining your moral self and achieving balance.
  • The path will be reveled to one, after the proper rest, reflection, and calmness is achieved.
  • Focusing properly will allow one to set priorities that are essential to one’s goal, thereby allowing achievement of the goal attainable.
  • Education is both comprehensive and imperative to one’s future.
  • Confucianist must utilize the trickle-down theory in reference to one’s personal relationships, organization, and product. When one’s personal or home life is in order the positive results will reflect in their professional activities.
  • Confucianism believes in the concept of effort over knowledge. Political influence, financial compensation, or social status has no bearing on one’s capability of learning.

Beginning in the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), Confucianism regulated gender roles as the cornerstone of its religion, thus shaping social life and societal stability in East Asia. Confucius regulated the following female and male roles in society:

  • Women remained dependent to their father prior to marrying.
  • Women became dependent on their husband after marriage.
  • Women became dependent on their child if in fact their husband passed away.
  • In ancient times, successful men had many side relationships (concubines) with women who they were not married to.
  • Men had the option to remarry, whereas women were supposed to retain their vow of chastity when their husbands were lost.

Ban Zhao (45 – 116CE) was born in Fufenganlin (in current day it’s called Shanxi Province). Ban Zhao followed in her father’s (Ban Biao) footsteps and became a famous historian. She has the honor of being the first known female Chinese historian. In the Han dynasty period, Ban Zhao wrote the important Confucian text titled ‘Lessons for Women’, or ‘Nujie’. These lessons were written by a woman and for women. The book listed the following proper roles for women:

  • All women should be hard working, follow instruction, and remain silent.
  • Ban Zhao enforced the yin-yang theory of how opposites are interdependent. She utilized this theory by showing how men and women are equally dependent upon one another however, she points out the fact that the yang-male is dominant.
  • In contrast to typical Confucianism practices, Ban Zhao maps out a solid educational plan for all females of all ages.
English: Commentaries of the Analects of Confu...

Commentaries of the Analects of Confucius, composed by He Yan in Cao Wei and published in Ming Dynasty (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The question of the Confucianism religion being secular or non-secular dates back to the 16th Century. When Europeans (Christian Jesuits) arrived in China, they researched Confucianism and came to the conclusion that it was a non-religious based ethical system, however compatible with Christianity. The debate of Confucianism being a religion continues today. That said, two aspects of the religion have been agreed upon. Confucianism is both humanistic, and a non-theistic religion.

Confucianism deals with the here and now. The cornerstone and root of its religion is moral values. The moral values include, reciprocating harmony, the act of turning the other cheek when receiving an unwelcome statement or hypocrisy.

Analects of Confucius are records of acts, words, and discussions of Confucius and his disciples. The Analects are considered the core belief system of Confucianism. These records were written around 500 BC with the vast majority written approximately 40 years after his death. Confucius began writing the Analects in the Spring and Autumn Period. It is believed that Confucius’s disciples and ‘second generation’ disciples wrote the vast majority of the Analects, and completed the records during the Warring States Period, with the content being Confucius’s theories, ideas, and thoughts.

‘I transmit but do not create, I place my trust in the teachings of antiquity.’

Written by – Confucius, Analects VII

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/religion-articles/confucianism-a-general-summary-of-the-religion-5738387.html

About the Author

William Bailey has written and published numerous books, E-books, papers, articles, research papers, reviews, and other publications in various genres including politics, children’s literature, fiction, non-fiction, science fiction, self-help, How-To, article reporting, and other categories of genres and sub-genres.

William Bailey’s writing website is as follows:

http://baileypublishing.webs.com

Reverend Doctor William Bailey: received his ordination confirmation in the year 2011, thereby making him, Rev. William Bailey. He then competed his Dissertation of Divinity in 2012 making him Rev. Dr. William Bailey. Aricles relating to religions or a spiritual nature published on this website are from research materials acquired while completing his Doctorate of Divinity. He has founded a Spiritual Network online at the following address:

http://holytrinityministries.webs.com/

Rev. Dr. William Bailey has an additional email for religious correspondents:

reverendwilliambailey@religious.com

As always his general email address is: billbailey15@hotmail.com


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Cosmology Matters

Yesterday I tweeted about this program. I also wrote the television station, telling them how much I enjoyed the show and that it should be available on the web. I was pleasantly surprised to be informed that TVO is extremely web savvy. So if anyone read my comments re yesterday’s entry, I stand corrected!

More importantly, I’m glad that visitors to Earthpages.org can watch this video too. I found it very helpful… nothing short of captivating.

—MC


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Finally, a cosmology that includes spirituality

Watched the authors on TV Ontario tonight. Outstanding. They were articulating things that I have thought about but often find challenging to express. One idea I really liked was the notion that even change changes. I think this is valuable on one level. Certainly there are many ways to view the universe or to “slice an onion,” as the old saying goes. But I think there still could be some meta-truths. For example: One of God’s primary attributes is love.

—MC


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Do thoughts really penetrate into matter?

A penny for your thoughts...Dollars for your t...

A penny for your thoughts…Dollars for your thoughts – NARA – 513735 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 


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Philo-Semitic Poles And Others

Nazi-German annoucement of the introduction of...

Nazi-German annoucement of the introduction of the death penalty for Jews leaving the ghettos and for Poles helping them; dated Nov. 10th, 1941 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Rabbi Allen S. Maller

On November 23, 1939, Hans Frank, head of the Nazi Government General that ruled central Poland, declared that all Jews above ten years of age were to wear a white badge with a Star of David on their right arm.

By October of 1940, almost 400,000 Polish Jews had been confined in a 3.5 square mile ghetto in Warsaw, an area which normally housed about 160,000 people. The Warsaw ghetto was surrounded by a wall 10 feet high that was sealed off on November 15, 1940. Jews were forbidden to go outside the area on penalty of being shot on sight.

One day, a young Jewish woman who escaped from the Warsaw Ghetto a few days before it was sealed shut, was riding on a streetcar when Gestapo men boarded and began checking identity papers. The woman had no papers and was not wearing the Jewish star.

In a panic she turned to an older Polish gentleman sitting next to her, and in a whisper begged his help. He yelled, “Foolish woman, how can you be so stupid?”

A Gestapo officer quickly walks over asking, “What is going on?” The man looks at the Jewish woman and says, “I tell her every day to remember to carry her papers with her. Now this idiot tells me she left them in the hall closet.” The Gestapo officer smiles, shrugs his shoulders and passes by.

Months later the woman tells her story to some other Jews who are also in hiding. The story survived. I do not know if the woman did. There must have been thousands of incidents like this, where a Jew was temporarily rescued by a Philo-Semitic Pole or other Gentile, and then later caught by the Nazis and murdered.

Warsaw Jews being held at gunpoint by SS troop...

Warsaw Jews being held at gunpoint by SS troops. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April 1943. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

These incidents have never been reported to the Israeli organization Yad V’Shem since the Jews involved did not survive, but those who did survive have already reported to Yad V”Shem over 6.400 Poles who have rescued Jews.

After the end of the communist oppression in Poland, a small but increasing number of Poles found out from older family members, that they had Jewish roots from one or more of their ancestors. Some of these Poles have been drawn to Jewish music, culture or religion and some of them have even become Jewish.

I am an American Reform Rabbi, and a teacher of the Jewish mystical tradition called Kabbalah. Over the last four decades in America and especially during two six to seven weeks visits to Poland in 2010 and 2012; I found many people who were drawn to Jewish life, especially those who become Jewish in Poland, already had a (gilgul) Jewish mind/soul that they inherited from one of their own Jewish ancestors.

Most new borns do not have a gilgul mind/soul. Most people have a new ‘first time here’ mind/soul.

Those who are certain they have no Jewish ancestors for at least five to seven generations back, may be new mind/souls; or they may be a descendent of a Pole or other Gentile who once helped rescue a Jew who was in great danger from a Polish denouncer or a German soldier.

Yellow badge Star of David called "Judens...

Yellow badge Star of David called “Judenstern”. Part of the exhibition in the Jewish Museum Westphalia, Dorsten, Germany. The wording is the German word for Jew (Jude), written in mock-Hebrew script. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

An example of this rare pattern of a descendent of a helpful Non-Jew becoming Jewish 3-4 generations later, occurred more than a decade ago in New York, where the great-grandson of President Roosevelt (FDR) became Jewish.

He is now a Reform Rabbi in New England. Rabbi Boettiger says he isn’t sure how FDR would have reacted, (FDR refused Jewish requests that he order the U.S. Army Air Force to bomb the gas chambers at Auschwitz) but Rabbi Boettiger is sure that FDR’s wife Eleanor, who was much more liberal, and helpful to minorities than her husband, “would have gotten a kick” out of his decision to become a rabbi.

If Rabbi Boettiger does have a Jewish gilgul mind/soul; it is probably from Eleanor Roosevelt.

Rabbi Maller’s web site is: rabbimaller.com

 

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