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Philia – One of many loves

Brotherly Love Series via Wikipedia

Philia is a Greek term usually translated as brotherly or friendly love.

The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle says there are three types of philia:

  1. Love for what is of practical use
  2. Love for what is pleasing
  3. Love for the good

Aristotle is a powerful thinker but, unlike Plato, not a mystical one. And he himself realizes that his three types of philia are not watertight categories.

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Hot new discovery – A serious intellectual tackles spiritual and other issues

This morning I checked out a blog I’d never seen before. I’ll be returning! I recommend this for anyone who thinks about self, society, politics, philosophy, ethics, spirituality… and is not intimidated by sentences longer than 5 words! » https://summaamare.com/


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Pelegianism and authoritarian personalities

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Wave-Particle Duality – Micro concept with macro implications


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Oxford “zero” research re-attests Hinduism’s umpteen contributions to science

Keble College Chapel as viewed across the quad...

Keble College Chapel as viewed across the quadrangle in Oxford, England. Taken by myself with a Canon 5D and 17-40mm f/4L lens. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Special to Earthpages.org

A highly significant research by University of Oxford has revealed that ancient Indian Bakhshali manuscript, dating to 3rd or 4th century, contained the world’s oldest recorded origin of the zero symbol that we use today.

The zero symbol that we use today reportedly evolved from a dot that was used in ancient India and can be seen throughout this seminal mathematical text held at University of Oxford’s Bodleian Libraries, which contains hundreds of zeroes. In 628 CE, Indian astronomer/mathematician Brahmagupta wrote Brahmasphutasiddhanta, which is the first document to discuss zero as a number.

Rajan Zed commended Oxford University for this remarkable revelation; and added that this proved that the concept of zero, which was of paramount importance to the world we live in today, was used by mathematicians in India as early as in third century.

English: The usual form of the numeral figures...

The usual form of the numeral figures used in the Bakhshali manuscript (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It again affirmed the rich scientific and mathematical traditions of Hinduism and its role and contributions in the development of science and technology, Zed, who is President of Universal Society of Hinduism, pointed out.

Rajan Zed at European Parliament via Wikipedia

Rajan Zed urged other major universities of the world; including Harvard, Stanford, Cambridge, Princeton, UC Berkeley, Yale, Columbia, Toronto, Tokyo, Melbourne, etc.; to undertake extensive research into ancient Hindu treatises, texts and manuscripts; thus sharing the wisdom and concepts of this oldest religion with the rest of the world.

Radiocarbon dating research was conducted at University of Oxford for this study on Bakhshali manuscript, which consists of 70 fragile leaves of birch bark.

 Malala ‘excited’ after winning place at Oxford University (sundiatapost.com)

 New ‘buddy’ system for Oxford University’s working class students (telegraph.co.uk)

 ‘Brilliant’ student to study at Oxford University after winning right to remain in UK (telegraph.co.uk)

 Malala’s 12 most inspiring and powerful quotes – as she gets into Oxford (telegraph.co.uk)

 Northwestern prof, Oxford staffer extradited in Michigan man’s brutal slaying (mlive.com)

 Oxford University employee arrested by US police ‘on suspicion of murder’ after manhunt (express.co.uk)


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Can we escape bias implied by language and other signs?

Stories like the one below (tweeted) always give me a slightly dissatisfied feeling. It’s like the big organization is claiming that it can be neutral or objective. Or if that is going too far, at least it implies that its overall perspective is better than the one it tries to replace. This may be the case in many instances. But to subtly suggest that we can objectively rewrite the past is questionable.

I say this because the author writes within the framework of the Smithsonian. An objective institution? Well, take a look at the funding and decide for yourself.

Admittedly, just because someone is funded does not mean that overt bias is present. But surely there is subtle bias. The way a story is presented. What is acceptable and what is not.

So the first tweet (top) raised a bit of a red flag for me today. I get the same feeling whenever Wikipedia tries to be monolithic. Humans are biased. It’s one power group over another. Always has been that way and probably always will be.


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And you think science is objective and without human bias?

I saw this yesterday and have been meaning to comment.

Science – good science – is indispensable to our modern way of life. Don’t get me wrong. And please don’t confuse science with technology. All I’ve been saying for the past while is that science is a human enterprise. As such, it is not perfect nor comprehensive.