The Real Alternative


Proof God’s Universe Is Filled with Life Comes Closer

Kepler mission Delta II liftoff

Kepler mission Delta II liftoff (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Rabbi Allen S. Maller

During Medieval times almost all Christian theologians accepted the Ptolemaic earth centered Greek view of the universe as an absolute universal truth. The Catholic Inquisition punished those who dared to voice other ideas.

I do not know why Catholic theologians believed that the rarity of life in our universe proves that God must have created life only on this planet. Perhaps they believed that if intelligent life were found to exist on other planets; it would diminish the miracle of God’s creation of Human Beings.

For me the opposite is true. That God’s universal creation is filled with life is simply the result of God’s love of living beings.

The Qur’an and the Hebrew Bible teach that the Living God created the whole universe to be conducive to the universal evolution of life. The Qur’an says, “We have not sent you but as a blessing for all the worlds.” (Al-Anbiya 107) Many commentators say “this refers to the 18.000 worlds created by Allah. Our world is one of them”. (Mir’at-e-Kainat, vol.1, p.77).

The Hebrew Bible says in the Zabur of Prophet David, King of Israel; “ Your kingdom is a kingdom of all the worlds; and Your dominion is for all generations.” (Psalms 145:13)

In January 2013, astronomers estimated that there could be at least 17 billion Earth-sized exoplanets in just our galaxy; the Milky Way. They also said that one in six stars could host an Earth-sized planet in a close orbit.

Now, two years later, proof that God’s Universe is filled with life is coming closer. NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has discovered a star with three planets only slightly larger than Earth. The outermost planet, which is 50% larger than planet earth, orbits in the zone where surface temperatures could be moderate enough for liquid water and perhaps life to exist.

The star ranks among the top 10 nearest stars known to have transiting planets. The star is close enough for astronomers to study the planet’s atmospheres to determine if it has oxygen could possibly be conducive to multicellular life forms.

The star is a cool red M-dwarf about half the size and mass of our own sun. At a distance of 150 light years, the star ranks among the top 10 nearest stars known to have transiting planets. The star’s proximity means it’s bright enough for astronomers to study the planets’ atmospheres to determine whether they are like Earth’s atmosphere and possibly conducive to life.

For those who believe in the One God of all the inhabitable worlds, these two new scientific studies are not shocking. For unlike the Roman inquisition’s condemnation of Galileo, no Muslim or Jewish astronomer was ever condemned by a Muslim or Jewish inquisition, because Jews and Muslims never had an institution like the inquisition.

Also, because both Muslims and Jews had many philosophers who were critics of Aristotle’s and Ptolemy’s science, most medieval Jewish and Muslim religious leaders did not feel they had to prevent new science from disagreeing with Greek science.

Thus, even as new discoveries always change the scientific understanding of God’s universe; the religious belief that the whole universe exalts God and reveals God’s glory remains the same.

As it is written in the Zabur of Prophet David, King of Israel; “The heavens declare the glory of God.” (Zabur of David-Psalm 19:2)

Rabbi Maller’s web site is:

Julius Wellhausen and the history of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

A name on the map

The Tanakh and the Talmidim of Yeshua

Christian: if New Testament is false, why not Hebrew Bible too?

Kepler Breaks The 1,000-Planet Barrier With More Confirmed Discoveries

Three nearly Earth-size planets found orbiting nearby star


Time Travel Novels : Arguably The Most Fascinating Topic

Time dilation in transversal motion. The requi...

Time dilation in transversal motion. The requirement that the speed of light is constant in every inertial reference frame leads to the theory of relativity (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Gary J. McCleary

Time travel is arguably the most fascinating topic in all of science fiction. If you are a fan of science fiction consider for a moment your favourite movies, books and episodes of television shows.

Which were the best episodes of Star Trek for example in all of its incarnations? Which episode would you consider to be the absolute best out of all the series? Think about your favourite movies and decide which is best out of straight adventure and exploration, fighting off monsters or the mind bending stories involving time travel.

There are two directions of possible travel, namely into the future or into the past. The truth is that travel into the future is not a problem and can be accomplished in a number of ways some of which are practical and others which are theoretically possible given future advances in technology.

We have…

Time dilation as proposed by Einstein as velocity approaches the speed of light. This has been verified even here on Earth by clocks travelling in high speed flight or in orbit and also by observing cosmic rays.

Suspended animation by freezing or even hibernation which the bears regularly do.

The normal aging process which takes our consciousness into the future at the steady rate of one second per second.

Now factor in things like black holes, wormholes, folded space, string theory etc and we have many possibilities to consider.

time travel using parallel universe.

time travel using parallel universe. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Now time travel into the past looks on the surface to be impossible because of the many paradoxes that it implies. However the laws of Physics are symmetrical and there is actually nothing in the laws that prohibits backward travel in time.

It is the exploring of the paradoxes that breathes life into the whole concept of time travel. The best known one is of course any variation on the so called ‘grandfather paradox’. This is where the time traveller goes back in time and murders his own grandfather before he gets around to fathering his father which means that the time traveller was never born which means that he never went back in time which means that he never killed his grandfather which means…well you get the picture.

In my Time Travel Novels I have explored many variations on this paradox and others. One explanation is that there are an infinite number of universes so every possibility is allowed for. Another is the theory that an event becomes its own cause so that whatever the time traveller does in the past it was meant to happen in the first place in order to set his existence in motion.

Think about any time travel story that you have ever seen or read and you will realise that they all involve a giant circle which appears to close on itself. The trick is in trying to pick where the break is in the circle.

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About the Author

I had a good childhood as childhoods go. I didn’t like school very much and yet I went on to become a high school Maths teacher. After five years of that I returned to university to finish my own full-time study in Applied Mathematics IV. Around this time I began a part-time career as a lecturer in Engineering Studies at the University of Western Sydney.

The groundwork for the person that I am today was always there though because I have always had a love for anything to do with science fiction. After Life Novels

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Is Time Travel Possible?

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By Alice Frances

The greater part of us accept that we live in a three dimensional world, however this is not really true. We really live in a four dimensional world. Three measurements of space, and one of time. Consider it thus, in our level, three dimensional world we can advance, retreat, and go up or down, correct? To envision this, envision you are in a building and need to go to a room before the building, then to a room at the rear of the building, and afterwards up in the lift to a room at the highest point of the building.

In any case, keep in mind there is an alternate component in this, time. Time is entwined with the fabric of space and time, it is the fourth measurement. We consider time so inborn, so fundamental to our reality that it is difficult to be independent of it, and consider it as a measurement unto itself. Yet material science demonstrates that this is so. .

Considering time a measurement may not fall into place without any issues. A fourth measurement obliges a jump from rationale, our mind essentially can’t appreciate. The fourth measurement of time is so joined with the other three measurements of space that physicists now assemble the four measurements by one name, space-time.

Physicists now accept that space-time is a fabric that might be extended, pulled and even wrapped into bunches. It may even, insane as this sounds, be conceivable to manufacture a time machine.

To do this, we must figure out how to control the space-time fabric. Numerous researchers now accept that time travel conceivable as well as unavoidable. Anyway how?

There are now Time Traveler’s among us. Space travelers have time traveled into the future. Here’s the means by which this is achieved. The space station circles the Earth at more than 27,000 kilometers for every hour.

The astronauts have existed on them for more than 700 days. Amid this period, the space explorers voyaged a miniscule portion of a second into the future utilizing their essential strategy, speed. A space boat is a time machine on the grounds that the velocity it goes at is slowing time for the individuals aboard.

The pace of light is the ‘universe speed limit’. Nothing voyages quicker. Also in regular life, an individuals going at hyperspeed encounter time passing more gradually than the individual going at a typical rate of velocity. Researchers call this time dilution. In Geneva Switzerland is CERN the European Organization for Nuclear Research and home of the world’s biggest atom smasher.

Researchers from eighty five separate countries ponder the subatomic world to see how the universe functions at this space-age office, and they have been completing time travel tests for more than forty years. a valuable time travel molecule is the Muon. These are high-vitality particles delivered by astronomical beams which continually barrage the world’s air and live for around a millionth of a second.

Researchers use speed to make the subatomic particles live longer transforming them into time travelers, and demonstrating that time travel is in principle conceivable.

Be that as it may there’s a discover to utilizing pace to construct a time machine. Moving at speed a molecule picks up vitality, however this implies its mass expands and a subatomic molecule zooming around at near the velocity of light can weigh more than 7,000 times its ordinary weight on the grounds that the molecule essentially gets heavier.

Pocket watch, savonette-type. Italiano: Orolog...

Photo credit: Wikipedia

This implies it needs way more vitality to keep it moving. For us to go at the rate of light, we would require an interminable measure of energy resource, which we can’t at this stage produce.

Regardless of the possibility that we did have this vital asset, its impossible we would have the capacity to return, so a time machine may be a restricted to what’s to come. Notwithstanding, if later on, we experience better energy, that empower us to travel we can get around this problem.

At the same time there is an answer. Gravity. We frequently consider gravity a compelling force that keeps us on earth. Yet there is developing proof that gravity can result in space-time twists and that this likewise has an impact on how time passes. On the off chance that we can twist the fabric of space time, we can make easy routes, rather like shafts that can get us starting with one point then onto the next without the need for speed.

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About the Author

Alice Wickham is the founding editor of New London Writers Literary Agency, an

outlet for new and upcoming writers. Visit NLW to submit an article or a book proposal.

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Underling Difference between Traditional Tzolkin and Dreamspell

an image of mayan calendar on cosumel island' ...

an image of mayan calendar on cosumel island’ Mexico (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Mark Pattinson

These days, two different Mayan calendar systems have surfaced as an alternative to the Gregorian calendar. One of them is the conventional Mayan calendar system and other refers to thirteen moon calendar. The traditional system is based on the sacred calendar which is still used in some parts of Guatemala. At this point, it draws inevitable curiosity as to the differences between the two systems.

It should be mentioned in this regard that 13 moon calendar is also known as Dreamspell. This alternative is so dominating that only a few have clear understanding of its significant difference from traditional Mayan calendar. In fact, the most common perception is both are identical or the later is a more advanced version of traditional calendar. Let us now put the most important differences between them as follows:

Jumps on Days

13 moon calendar makes jumps on some particular days. The most notable jump is on February 29 in every leap year or Olympic year. On the contrary, traditional Mayan calendar which is considered more sacred, never features any kind of jump. It is based on continuous flow of heavenly creation and every day in the Mayan calendar is assigned a sacred energy of time.

Going by that rule, every day is associated with a sign and number. To put it differently, the very concept that there would be some days without any energy in calendar seems to be alien to the basic concept of Mayan calendar. In a comparatively modern version of Mayan calendar i.e. Dreamspell, Feb 29 is sans energy and so different from other days. However, that leap was not originally conceptualized by Mayan people but by Pope Gregory in 1582.

Sweet but ancient Mayan vendor looking totally...

Mayan vendor at Chichen Itza (Photo credit: Alaskan Dude)

His decision of excluding a particular day plays an important role in this new calendar system. However, that difference negatively affects people’s understanding of traditional and sacrosanct Mayan calendar or Tzolkin. July 26 is also a big jump every year, which is in stark contrast to the traditional way of moon counting in Mayan system where month duration alternates between 29 and 30 days. That was uninterruptedly followed.

Traditional system reflects the phase of moon and so is more scientific.

Way of Month Counting

The traditional way of counting months in Mayan calendars heavily harmonized with the female’s natural cycle of menstruation, gestation and ovulation, which does not hold true for Gregorian calendar.

Dreamspell or 13 moon calendar is not considered an authentic approach towards Mayan calendar. Those who still stay put with this diversion can make a visit to The website uses a different counting system but produces same type of analysis and prediction with higher accuracy.

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About the Author

Fatih is extremely passionate about Mayan civilization, especially the Mayan calendar, astrology and predictions. He owns a website to educate intending readers about Mayan sign, astrology and most importantly differences between Dreamspell and traditional Mayan counting. To know more, visit his website

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Almost Every Star in Milky Way Probably Has Planets

Extrasolar planet WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b

Extrasolar planet WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b (Photo credit: Raven Vasquez)

By Rabbi Allen S. Maller

Over the past 16 years, astronomers have detected more than 3,035 (2,326 candidates and 709 confirmed) exoplanets orbiting other stars. Now Nancy Atkinson on Universe Today reports that a new study using gravitational microlensing suggests that almost every star in our galaxy has at least one planet circling it. “We used to think Earth was unique in our galaxy,” said Daniel Kubas, a co-lead author of a paper that appeared in the January 11, 2012 issue of the journal Nature. “But now it seems that there probably are billions of planets with masses similar to Earth orbiting stars in the Milky Way.”

Most of these extrasolar planets were discovered using the radial velocity method (detecting the effect of the gravitational pull of the planet on its host star) or the transit method (catching the planet as it passes in front of its star, slightly dimming it.) Those two methods usually tend to find very large planets that are relatively close to their parent star; circumstances that are not conducive to life as we know it. But another method, gravitational microlensing — where the light from the background star is amplified by the gravity of the foreground star, which then acts as a magnifying glass — is able to find planets over a wide range of mass that are further away from their stars.

Gravitational microlensing method requires that you have two stars that lie on a straight line in relation to us Earthlings. Then the light from the background star is amplified by the gravity of the foreground star, which thus acts as a magnifying glass. A large international team of astronomers used the technique of gravitational microlensing in a six-year search that surveyed millions of stars. “We conclude that stars are orbited by planets as a rule, rather than the exception,” the team stated. They also found that smaller planets, such as super-Earths or cool Neptunes, must be more common than giant ones like Jupiter.

This means that life. which arose early in our planet’s history, is very wide spread in our galaxy. Self aware, intelligent, tool making, language using, lifeforms are much rarer, since it took 99% of Earth’s history for such forms to arise on Earth. However, if there are many millions of Earthlike planets, there should be many thousands of planets inhabited by intelligent creatures. We are not alone. Many religious leaders will object to this idea because they believe that humans are at the center of God’s concern. Does not the Torah teach that humans are created in the image of God? As a Rabbi I would say YES; but God’s image does not refer to a physical form, because God does not have a body and does not incarnate into a physical form. God’s image refers to a spiritual dimension; the combining of free will, moral choice, artistic creativity, and the spiritual ability to experience awe and religious insight.

As a Rabbi, I have no doubt that when we are able to communicate with extraterrestrial intelligences, we will find that they all have various religions and forms of art, Those who believe that their religion is the only true one will be in for a true shock.

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Did God Seed Life Throughout the Universe?

The Medieval era began esoteric circles of Kab...

The Medieval era began esoteric circles of Kabbalistic dissemination in French Provence, Andalusian Spain and Germany-Ashkenaz (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Now that we have learned that most stars in our galaxy have one or more planets; evidence is starting to accumulate that some of these planets, with liquid water, probably have life on them, just as we do on planet earth”, says Rabbi Allen S. Maller. When Rabbi Maller wrote his book about Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) in 1983, there was no evidence at all that any other stars had planetary systems. Twenty nine years later, astronomers have already discovered over 1,500 exoplanets.

Now very recent evidence suggests that complex organic molecules — such as amino acids that build proteins and ringed bases that form nucleic acids — grow on icy dust grains in an infant solar system. All it takes are high-energy ultraviolet photons to provoke the rearrangement of chemical elements in the grains’ frozen sheaths, according to a new study, reported online March 29, 2012 in Science. This supports Rabbi Maller’s assertion, based on Kabbalistic teachings, that God didn’t create a universe with millions of billions of stars and leave it devoid of intelligent, spiritually aware lifeforms, with the only one exception being on planet Earth. Earth size planets at the right distance to support carbon based life will be discovered in the next few years according to Rabbi Maller, and many of them will show signs of life.

In his introduction to Modern Kabbalah, “God, Sex and Kabbalah”, Rabbi Maller devoted an entire chapter to Extra Terrestrial Intelligent Life as evidence of God’s universal creation. If making organic ingredients happens as readily as this study indicates, then planetary systems of other stars are probably seeded with the same fertile, organic pastures. “Anywhere you have ice and high-energy, ultraviolet radiation, this process is going to take place. And those are both pretty common in the universe,” says Dante Lauretta, a planetary scientist at the University of Arizona where researchers began by simulating the early solar nebula, a swirling disk of gas and dust that surrounded our young sun until planets began forming about 4.5 billion years ago. Over a theoretical one million-year period, the team tracked the movement of 5,000 individual dust grains, tiny organic-toting particles covered in ice made from compounds like water, carbon dioxide, methanol, or ammonia. Most grains survived the million-year period, though some fell inward and were snatched by the sun.

Grains lofted above the disk’s plane met warmer temperatures and high-energy ultraviolet photons — the catalysts needed to convert elements in the simple ices to more complex molecules. In these types of reactions, photons striking chemical bonds create varieties of complex molecules that are highly reactive and ready to recombine. As warming temperatures cause the ices to evaporate, those elements can find partners and form new molecules. With enough photons slamming into enough dust grains in the early solar nebula, it’s hard to avoid making complex molecules this way. Astrobiologists have identified such molecules as being important in the story of life’s origins, and there’s abundant evidence that they can survive in space. Scientists studying meteorites that crashed to Earth have found amino acids and nucleobases in the space rocks.

In the lab, researchers have simulated how such compounds could be made astrochemically. Swirling around the young sun, those organic-laden ice grains eventually clustered and clumped. The clumps grew into comets and asteroids that bore these molecules to Earth, depositing them in fiery collisions or lighting the infant skies with an organic-rich hailstorm. “It’s well established that extraterrestrial compounds were delivered in this way,” Jason Dworkin, an astrobiologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Center says. “It’s not yet clear how much the space travelers contributed to the population of organic compounds on Earth, but it is certainly a convenient mode of delivery.“ And Rabbi Maller adds, “It is more than convenient, it is the logic of a Kabbalistic belief in a creative God who loves life.”

Rabbi Maller’s web site is:

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Physics — Classic and Quantum

A harmonic oscillator in classical mechanics (...

A harmonic oscillator in classical mechanics (A-B) and quantum mechanics (C-H)... via Wikipedia

Author: Gene F. Collins, Jr., Ph.D.

The laws of nature are but
the mathematical thoughts of God.


Math, science, history
Unraveling the mystery
It all started with a Big Bang

The Barenaked Ladies

This article presents the historical development of classical and quantum physics. It is intended for the layman who is interested in New Age topics, metaphysics, and spirituality. This is the first of four intended to provide background information that can serve as a bridge between modern physics and ancient metaphysics. The second article concerns the spooky behavior of matter at the quantum level, such as spatial and temporal nonlocality, i.e., the disappearance of time and space. The third article summarizes the holographic model of the universe, and the fourth introduces string theory and brane cosmology. If you start to get overwhelmed by new terms or concepts, don’t panic. You will not be tested on it later.

The present article begins with the publication of Sir Isaac Newton’s discovery of gravity and the publication of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1686. Newton’s treatise marked the end of what was called natural philosophy and the beginning of classical physics. It goes on to describe how quantum physics was developed in order to account for the inadequacies of classical physics regarding the properties of light and the electromagnetic spectrum. The essential theoretical differences between classical and quantum physics are presented, including such phenomena as wave-particle duality, quantum jumps, the quantum wave function, and non-causal correlations between particles. The philosophical implications for scientific determinism are explored. The standard model of particle physics and the four forces are also included.

In our everyday experience, we are aware of ourselves, other people, houses, cars, cats, and dogs as distinct and separate things. We know that all these things are made up of matter, and all things made of matter seem to follow certain natural laws of space and time. For instance, in this world that we experience daily, no two objects can occupy the exact same space at the exact same time, and no object can be in two or more places at once. In this world described classical physics, time moves in one direction—from the past to the present and into the future.

We know that matter is acted upon or interacts with energy (or force). Matter appears in three states—solid, liquid, and gas. (There is a possible fourth state—plasma, but we do not ordinarily encounter it.) Some things made of matter are solid like trees and buildings; some things are liquid like water, milk, and oil; and some things are gases like the air in the atmosphere and the helium in a balloon. Applying energy in the form of heat can turn solid matter into liquid matter and liquid matter into gaseous matter. Removing heat can turn gaseous matter into liquid matter and liquid matter into solid matter.

Grof referred to this normal, ordinary, everyday state that is matter-oriented as hylotropic consciousness:

In the hylotropic mode of consciousness, an individual experiences himself or herself as a solid physical entity with definite boundaries and with a limited sensory range. The world appears to be made of separate material objects and has distinctly Newtonian characteristics: time is linear, space is three-dimensional, and all events seem to be governed by chains of causes and effects. Experiences in this mode support systematically a number of basic assumptions about the world, such as: matter is solid; two objects cannot occupy the same space; past events are irretrievably lost; future events are not experientially available; one cannot be in more than one place at a time;1

The Classical Physics of Sir Isaac Newton

English: Isaac Newton Dansk: Sir Isaac Newton ...

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) via Wikipedia

Physics, or natural philosophy as it was once called, is the study of the natural or material world and its phenomena. It is the science of matter, energy, and their interactions. Classical physics is the scientific discipline that studies matter and energy and describes the natural laws that govern them.

Classical physics was born July 5, 1686.2 With the financial backing of the English Astronomer Royal Edmond Halley (1656-1742), English astrologer and alchemist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) published his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In his Philosophiæ, Newton presented his three laws of motion, his work on calculus, and his theory of gravity. Newton based much of his work on the ideas of the Prussian astronomer, astrologer, cleric, and military commander Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the Danish astrologer and alchemist Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the Tuscan astrologer and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the German astrologer and mathematician Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), and the French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), the father of modern philosophy. Newton’s Philosophiæ secured him the Presidency of the Royal Society in 1703.

Newton’s law of universal gravitation was the birth, and later the death, of classical physics. According to Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the force of gravity (F) between two objects (for example, the sun and earth, the earth and an apple, or the sun and an apple) could be determined by multiplying the mass (in kilograms) of the first object (m1) by the mass (in kilograms) of the second object (m2) and by the gravitational constant (G), and then dividing the result by the square of the distance between the two objects (r). Newton’s formula for gravity is written as F = Gm1m2/r2. The G is a constant called the gravitational constant, Newton’s constant, and the universal gravitational constant and has been determined to equal the product of (6.67428 ± 0.00067) x 10-11m3kg-1s-2. G is approximately equal to 6.674 x 10-11N(m/kg)2.

Newton’s law of universal gravitation works well in classical physics, which deals with objects larger than atoms. Three centuries later, after the discovery and development of quantum physics, particle-physics, and the standard model, Newton’s formula brought about an abrupt halt in the progress of physics. In the quantum-particle-standard-model version of physics that developed during the 20th-century, the smallest particles of matter—electrons, quarks, etc.—are assumed to be point particles with no dimensions—no length, no height, no depth. With no length, no height, and no depth, point particles have no distance between them. That is, r (the distance between any two point particles) equals zero. Therefore, r2 equals 0 x 0 = 0. Anything (in this case Gm1m2) divided by 0 equals ∞ (infinity), that is, F = Gm1m2/02 or F = ∞.

Thus, according to Newton’s formula, the force of gravity is infinitely strong between any two point-particles. If this were true, no particles of matter would be able to separate into individual particles. There would be no space existing between particles. What is important to understand here is that when the classical physics model or equation for the strength of gravity is applied to the point-particles of quantum physics, the result (infinity) is impossible. Gravity, as understood by classical physics, is not compatible with quantum physics. Therefore, classical physics and quantum physics are incompatible. They cannot readily be combined into one theory or model that explains all of physical reality. (Gravity presents other challenges to the quantum physics model that render classical physics and quantum physics incompatible and therefore fails to provide a complete model or theory of the physical universe.)

In addition to gravity and planetary motion, Newton gave us his three laws of motion: the law of inertia, the law of acceleration, and the law of reciprocal actions. Newton’s law of inertia states that a physical body will remain at rest if it is at rest, or continue to move at a constant velocity if it is moving, unless an outside force acts upon it. Newton’s law of acceleration states that the net force on a body is equal to its mass multiplied by its acceleration. His law of reciprocal actions states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

In addition to his contributions to physics, Newton was an astrologer, an alchemist, and a Rosicrucian. His occult or esoteric analysis of the Bible led him to predict that the world as we know it would end in 2060 and be replaced with a new heaven and a new earth. As mentioned above, Newton, Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo, and Kepler were each either astrologers, alchemists, or both. Even Descartes is believed to have been a Rosicrucian, a member of one of the ancient, mystical orders of the Rosy Cross.

The Heliocentric Solar System, Electromagnetic Fields, and Einstein’s Relativity

English: Albert Einstein Français : portrait d...

Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) via Wikipedia

The early Christian church had adopted the Aristotle/Ptolemy or geocentric model of the universe, that is, the idea that the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars revolved around the Earth in perfectly circular orbits. Church authorities believed that this model was the one and only model of the universe endorsed by the Bible. In 1514, Copernicus resurrected the ancient, heliocentric model that the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun in circular orbits.3 Galileo and Johannes Kepler publicly supported the Copernican model.4

In 1609 Galileo revealed that he had observed moons orbiting Jupiter. Galileo’s observations also called into question the belief that all celestial bodies must orbit the Earth. This crack in the Aristotle/Ptolemy model opened the door to the possibility that the other bodies (the Sun, Mercury, etc.) did not necessarily orbit the Earth. By replacing Copernicus’ circular orbits with elliptical ones, Kepler was able to predict the motion of the planets accurately. In his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton analyzed the elliptical motion of the planets and, using his law of universal gravitation, explained the planetary orbits.

During the two hundred years following Newton’s work, our understanding of the physical universe grew thanks to the experimental science of classical physics. Then, in the late 1800’s, classical physics took a dramatic turn. Building on the work of English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867), Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) expanded the realm of classical physics with his unified model of electromagnetism.5 He demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves moving at the speed of light. In 1861 Maxwell theorized that light waves gave rise to both electric and magnetic fields. Maxwell discovered that the universe was made up of fields of energy that interact with one another. His research led to field theory physics, a sub-field of classical physics.

German-born physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) expanded the realm of classical physics even further with his special theory of relativity in 1905 and his general theory of relativity in 1915. With his special theory of relativity, Einstein demonstrated that the independence of the speed of light required actual physical changes in the spacetime framework. His general theory of relativity demonstrated that the mass-energy of matter and its momentum create actual curvatures in spacetime fabric.

McEvoy and Zarate distilled the worldview according to classical physics into six basic assumptions:

The first basic assumption is that classical physics regards the universe as a giant machine, set in a framework of absolute time and space (or relative time and space thanks to Einstein). The laws of motion in the universe are understood to be similar to the laws of motion of a machine. Any complicated movements that cannot be easily understood by the machine analogy could be broken down into simpler movements until they resemble mechanical motion.

The second assumption is that each and every motion has a cause. The universe can be understood as a chain of causes and their effects. This assumption is referred to as the law of cause and effect, or the law of causality.

The third assumption is that if the state of motion is known at one point, it can be determined at any other point in the future or the past. This principle is known as determinism.

According to the fourth basic assumption, the properties of light are completely described by Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory and have been confirmed by experimentation.

The fifth assumption is that there are two physical models representing energy—the particle model and the wave model. The models are mutually exclusive; energy must be either a particle or a wave, but never both.

And sixth is that it is possible to measure to any degree of accuracy the properties of a system like its temperature, speed, or mass.6

Classical Physics and Determinism

Nederlands: De "Philosophiae Naturalis Pr...

Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica via Wikipedia

Classical physics describes the motion of objects in terms of position, mass, force, velocity, and acceleration in a four-dimensional context of space and time. Classical physics has been applied successfully to the behavior of solids, liquids, and gasses. Its laws have also been successfully applied to objects as large as planets, stars, and galaxies. Given an accurate description of every particle in the universe at some particular moment, classic physics can predict the subsequent development of the universe with nearly complete accuracy. This characteristic of classical physics is known as determinism or casual determinism.

Classical physics is dominated by the principle of complete determinism. Theoretically, everything is predetermined. Every event is causally determined by a chain of prior events. Future events are completely predictable because they are causally determined by a combination of physical laws and of past and present events. Even the thoughts, emotions, and actions of every individual are caused by past external and internal physiological events.

The determinism of classical physics is also referred to as the clockwork universe theory. According to classical physics, the universe works like a perfect machine, like a gigantic clockwork wound up by the hand of God and left to run on its own. Due to his religious beliefs, Newton was never comfortable with the deterministic nature of his physical laws, but he was unable to find a reasonable alternative.

The determinism of classical physic excludes the phenomena of consciousness and free will. In classical physics, consciousness and free will are epiphenomena, i.e., secondary phenomena that result from the electrochemical activity in the brain. According to this viewpoint, there is no value in studying either consciousness or free will because they do not affect or interact with the physical universe. If either did affect the physical universe, the clockwork universe theory would have to be abandoned in favor of a theory that includes such immaterial variables.

The clockwork universe theory suffered a temporary blow by the German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-1888) and his second law of thermodynamics.7 The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. In other words, without an input of energy from some outside force, a system loses energy and order. It decays. The second law of thermodynamics suggests that, without some outside source of energy, the clockwork universe will wind down and stop.

Entropy is also the basis for the claim by classical physics that time can move in only one direction. Take an egg, for example. There is a certain order in the composition of the typical bird’s egg—its shell, its yolk, etc. If the egg is broken, there is a loss of order in the egg’s structure. Returning the egg to its pre-broken form is impossible according to classical physics and the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, it is impossible to move backwards in time.

Determinism and the clockwork universe theory suffered their greatest blow by the spooky behavior displayed by atoms and subatomic particles. Although classical physics is useful in the prediction of the behavior of matter and energy at the macroscopic level—our everyday level of reality, the laws of classical physics fail to predict the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. It is this spooky behavior at the atomic and subatomic levels that led to the development of quantum physics.

From Classical Physics to the Mysterious Universe of the Quantum

English: Gravitational field determined using ...

Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation via Wikipedia

At the ordinary level of everyday consciousness, we know ourselves, others, and the world through our physical senses—vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Some of us are born with one or more of these senses missing; some of us are born with one or more of these senses strongly emphasized; and some seem to be born with one or more of these senses so finely attuned that the phenomena of higher sensory or extrasensory perception comes to mind.

Everything in our ordinary, everyday world of distinct objects is made up of atoms. Atoms are made up of electrons, protons, quarks, and other subatomic particles. Every solid object, including your own physical body, is composed of these ultramicroscopic particles. Anything that exists in the real or macro-world exists in the world of atoms and subatomic particles. The world of atoms and subatomic particles is the world of the quantum, where matter and energy no longer obey the rules of classical physics.

Quantum physics is the specialized branch of physics that deals with matter and energy as it exists at the levels of atoms and of subatomic particles. Quantum physics was born on December 14, 1900, when the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) published his work on the quantum nature of light. At the time, no one suspected that his findings were the beginning of an entirely new, scientific model for understanding reality.

The following century saw discoveries in both classical and quantum physics. Since no scientific field of study stands alone, completely independent of all others, advances in classical and quantum physics have mutually influenced one another. Sometimes a physicist works in both classical and quantum physics. For example, in 1905 Einstein published papers on his special theory of relativity, a topic germane to classical physics. The same year he published a paper on the photoelectric effect, a phenomenon of quantum physics.

Classical physics takes a materialistic worldview and describes reality as consisting ‘of a fixed and passive space containing localized material particles whose movement in time is deterministically governed by mathematical laws.’8 ‘Consciousness, thought, and mental phenomena are viewed as mere epiphenomenon of matter’9 and ‘nothing more than the complex functions of the material brain governed by physical laws.’10 However, at the quantum level, the deterministic laws of classical physics no longer apply and consciousness becomes the major player.

James Clerk Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Spectrum

"Tartan ribbon", the first permanent...

Tartan Ribbon, photograph taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861. Considered the first colour photograph - via Wikipedia

Most of what we refer to as energy colloquially is often some part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum consists of various types or forms of energy including visible light, infrared light, ultraviolet light, radio and television waves, microwaves, x-rays, and gamma rays (Figure 53). As mentioned earlier, in 1861 James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space, in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light. He theorized that the energies of the electromagnetic spectrum consist of moving waves of varying frequencies that travel through space and spread out or radiate as they travel.

The energies of the electromagnetic spectrum consist of moving waves of varying frequencies. The higher the frequency, the more energy it contains. In addition to frequency (measured as cycles per second or Hertz), the energies of the electromagnetic spectrum can be measured as wavelengths (meters) and as energy (electron volts).

The waves or vibrations of the electromagnetic spectrum penetrate both space and matter. When electromagnetic waves penetrate matter, they can add to or increase the energy of the matter at the level of subatomic particles, thus increasing the motion of the subatomic particles and the motion of the atoms that make up the matter of an object. For example, when a heated object is applied to some part of the body, the heat radiates into that body part, increasing the energy of the atoms of the particular body part. The end result is that the body part feels warmer.

However, if the electromagnetic waves deliver too much energy to the body part, the motion of the subatomic particles increases and the particles escape the atoms, causing the atoms to combine with other types of atoms. The end result is that the body part is burned or destroyed.

In addition to electromagnetic waves, we are surrounded by waves or vibrations carried primarily by matter. Explosions, earthquakes, and animal stampedes cause solid matter to vibrate. Tossing a stone into a lake creates waves in the water. The air (a combination of gasses) carries sound waves, including the sounds of human speech.

As human animals, we have specialized sensory organs that detect certain ranges or frequencies of waves. Our eyes detect what we call visible light. Our ears pick up a particular range of sound waves in the air. We have a variety of receptors that detect waves and moment in solid objects like the movement of escalators and movements of the earth during an earthquake.

There are many wave frequencies for which our bodies lack receptors, such as radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays to name a few. Just because we cannot sense such frequencies does not mean that these rays do not affect us. Over-exposure to such rays can result in burns, sickness, and death.

We are surrounded and penetrated by a multitude of waves. Waves are everywhere, and they crisscross or collide with one another continuously. Waves of similar amplitudes and frequencies may combine, producing waves of new amplitudes and frequencies. Waves of opposite amplitudes may cancel each other out. Whatever the end result, when waves produced by two or more sources cross one another, they interfere with each other. The resulting new pattern is referred to as an interference pattern.

Max Planck’s Quantum Physics

Français : Dr. Max Planck English: Dr. Max Planck

Max Planck (1858 – 1947) via Wikipedia

Quantum physics arose out of classical physics in an effort to answer questions about atoms and subatomic particles that classical physics could not handle satisfactorily. That is, the laws of classical physics predicted that experiments with atoms and subatomic particles should produce certain results. However, the experiments turned out differently. Quantum physics is that body of knowledge that grew out of the best intellectual efforts to make sense of these strange results.

For example, according to classical physics, when a black-body is heated, it should emit energy at various wave lengths of the electromagnetic spectrum—heat, microwaves, light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and cosmic rays. A black-body is anything that normally absorbs all the wave lengths of visible light that strike it; a black-body does not reflect any visible light and, thus, appears black to us. A piece of coal or sealed box might be a good example of a black-body.

When coal is heated, classical physics predicts that all wave lengths of the electromagnetic spectrum should be emitted. If we are standing next to a fi re place that is burning coal, we feel the heat and see the coal turn a reddish-orange. Classical physics, in general, and electromagnetic wave theory, in particular, predicts that energy emitted from the black-body should take the form of light waves of various frequencies, changing in a continuous manner as the energy of the black-body is increased or decreased. However, Planck observed that the changes in light waves were not continuous—that is, they did not flow smoothly from one frequency to the next.

In order to understand the failure of classical physics to predict the black-body phenomenon correctly, Planck proposed that light and similar waves could not be emitted in a continuous manner as the wave lengths varied. Instead, light consisted of discrete units, which he called quanta. Each quantum carried energy of a specific wave length. Each quantum of light had a certain amount of energy; the greater the energy, the higher the frequency of the waves carried by the quanta. Planck calculated the energy of each quantum, using the formula E = hv, where E is the energy of each quantum, v is the quantum’s frequency, and h, referred to as Planck’s constant, is 6.63 X 10-34 joule-seconds.

In effect, what Planck was proposing is that, instead of continuous waves of energy, light took the form of individual packets or particles. Planck used the Latin word quantum, meaning a specific, discrete amount, to describe these packets of light energy.

Until then, the electromagnetic spectrum was thought of as waves of continuous frequencies. Now, Planck was describing light, as well as all the other waves of the electromagnetic spectrum, as particles. According the classical physics, energy could be either waves or particles, but not both. In 1905 Albert Einstein presented additional evidence supporting the theory that light manifested as particles. When certain metals are struck by a beam of light, they emit (release) electrons. This process is referred to as the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect was at odds with the electromagnetic wave theory of light, which described light as waves. Einstein proposed that this effect was the result of the particle nature of light. Using the particle concept and a numerical constant discovered by Planck, Einstein was able to predict accurately the energy changes seen in the photoelectric effect.

One of the best ways to conceive of this different interpretation of light is to imagine light as a ball rolling down a ramp. This is the classical interpretation of light as a continuous wave. The ball rolls down the ramp in a continuous manner even if it changes speeds.

Now imagine a ball bouncing down a staircase. This is the new interpretation of light as a discrete particle. Light, as a particle, jumps from one step or from one level of energy to the next.

The particles or quanta of light were later called as photons. We now know that sometimes visible light appears as if it were made of photons and displays the characteristics expected of particles of matter. At other times, light displays the characteristics expected of waves. This duality of light is referred to as the complementary principle. Further research has concluded that all forms of energy can manifest as either waves or particles.

As it turns out, this wave-particle complementary principle is not only a characteristic of energy, but of all matter and force fields at the quantum level.11 In 1924 the French Prince Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) proposed that electrons as well as all forms of matter also appear as waves under the right circumstances.12 ‘Matter waves’ have frequencies, amplitudes, and wave lengths like energy waves. However, the wave lengths of matter waves are extremely short, too short for observation under most experimental conditions today. The short wave lengths also contribute to our perception of matter as solid, or fairly solid in the case of liquids and gasses. Later, it was discovered by the British physicist Paul Dirac (1902-1984) that every particle of matter also behaves like a wave. In what became the quantum field theory, every force field also has its own kind of particle that carries that particular force.13

Quantum Mechanics, Theory, and Physics

The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals ...

The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability... via Wikipedia

Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior of atoms and subatomic particles.14 It describes the nature of atoms and their building blocks, the subatomic particles—electrons, protons, and neutrons.15

Quantum physics (or quantum mechanics) has been defined as the theory of the behavior of matter and energy, particularly at the level of atoms and subatomic particles,16as the theory developed from Planck’s quantum principle and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle,17as a physical theory based on the idea of the quantum (a discrete amount) and quantum jumps (a discontinuous transition)—first discovered in connection with atomic objects,18 and as the framework of laws governing the universe whose unfamiliar features such as uncertainty, quantum fluctuations, and wave-particle duality become most apparent on the ultramicroscopic scales of atoms and subnuclear particles.19

By the end of the 1920’s, physicists had developed a largely theoretical body of thought or quantum theory to explain a number of observed oddities in the behavior of subatomic particles. According to quantum theory, reality at the quantum level does not exist separately from or independently of human observation—reality comes into existence only when it is observed or measured by the human mind. The orthodox interpretation of quantum theory states that there is no deeper level of reality than that studied by quantum physics. However, many quantum physicists disagree concerning this ‘orthodox’ interpretation of quantum physics.

According to physicist David Bohm (1917-1992), quantum theory has four primary features:

The first feature is the indivisibility of the quantum action. In classical physics, when something moves from one state of being (position, etc.), there is a continuous series of intermediate states between the initial state and the final state. But when a quantum particle moves from an initial state to a final state, there are no intermediate states. The movement is said to be discontinuous. The quantum particle vanishes from one location and instantly reappears in another. This action is referred to as a quantum jump.

The second feature is the wave-particle duality properties of quantum particles. Subatomic particles, such as electrons, can show different properties (e.g., particle-like, wave-like, or something in between), depending on the environmental context within which they exist and are subject to observation. Under some conditions they behave like waves, while under other conditions they behave like particles. Yet, they are always both waves and particles. This paradox is the complementary principle mentioned above.

The third feature is that the laws of quantum mechanics are statistical and do not determine individual future events uniquely and precisely. The properties of matter are revealed in terms of statistical potentialities. That is, at the quantum level, every physical situation is characterized by a quantum wave function. This quantum wave function is not directly related to the actual properties of an individual object, event, or process. Instead, it is a sum of probability curves. Each curve gives the probability or likelihood that a particular object, event, or process will occur. Each of these potential situations are mutually incompatible; i.e., only one can manifest or be actualized. There is no way to determine which one will manifest; there are only probabilities associated with each possible outcome.

The fourth feature of quantum physics is what is referred to as non-causal correlations. Two particles, such as electrons, which were initially part of a quantum system, when separated, show a peculiar non-local relationship, which can best be described as a non-causal connection, no matter how far apart they are (as demonstrated in the experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen). That is, when two or more quantum particles have been associated with each other and are subsequently separated by time and/or space, whatever happens to one of the quantum particles is instantaneously reflected in the other quantum particle. According to Einstein’s theories of relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. However, no matter how distant in time/or space two or more correlated (related, associated) particles are, there exists some form of instantaneous information sharing among them. Because this sharing is instantaneous, it takes place faster than the speed of light. Physicists disagree as to how this information sharing occurs.20

Point-Particles and the Standard Model


The quark structure of the neutron. There are two down quark in it and one up quark. The strong force is mediated by gluons (wavey). The strong force has three types of charges, the so called red, green and the blue - by Arpad Horvath via Wikipedia

Particle physics is the study of the basic elements of matter and of the four fundamental forces. Ironically, particle physics got its start about four hundred years before the birth of Christ. The Greek philosopher Democritus (ca. 460 BC-ca. 370 BC) and his student Leucippus proposed that matter was composed of indivisible units called atoma or atoms. According to Democritus, atoms were indestructible and in constant motion. Atoms came in various forms, shapes, and sizes and occupied empty space. The soul was made up of particularly fine, spherical atoms.

Twenty-four hundred years later the atomic theory was revived when J. J. Thomson (1856-1940) discovered the electron in 1897.21 The proton was discovered in 1919 by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), the father of nuclear physics. Nuclear physics is the study of the atom and its nucleus, subatomic particles, and their interactions. Radioactive decay, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion are phenomena covered by nuclear physics.

The neutron was discovered in 1932 James Chadwick (1891-1974). Eleven years earlier (in 1921) Chadwick and E. S. Bieler proposed the existence of the strong nuclear force. The first particle accelerator, a 9-inch cyclotron, was built at the University of California Berkeley in 1931. As more and more powerful accelerators came on line, a pantheon of subatomic particles were discovered or created. The list of elementary and composite particles continued to grow. Murray Gell-Mann and Kazuhiko Nishijima independently suggested the existence of quarks in 1961.

In 1974 Greek physicist John Iliopoulos presented the standard model of particle physics. The standard model evolved as new discoveries in quantum mechanics were made. The standard theory treats the particles of matter and the force-carrying particles as point-particles. Point-particles are particles without length, width, or depth. Some point-particles have mass; most do not. It does not account for gravity and Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The standard theory has been very successful in explaining experimental data arising from quantum mechanics. However, physicists must turn to general relativity to explain our larger universe.22

Over 200 subatomic particles have been discovered. Most of these are composite particles, made of two or more elementary particles. Some particles are virtual particles, lasting for extremely short time periods. Virtual particles are created and destroyed during exchanges between otherwise natural particles.

In addition to ordinary matter, the physical universe contains antimatter. Antimatter is matter that has the same gravitational properties as ordinary matter, but has an opposite electric charge as well as opposite nuclear force charges and opposite spin.23 Matter is made of particles; antimatter is made of antiparticles. An antiparticle is a particle with the same mass as the particle concerned but with the opposite ‘charge-like’ properties. When a particle and its antiparticle meet they can annihilate one another releasing energy.24

The Four Forces–Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces

English: Sketch diagram of a tube filled with ...

Sketch diagram of a tube filled with hydrogen gas radiating photons that then get sorted... via Wikipedia

According the physics in general and quantum physics in particular, particles of matter interact with one another by means of four fundamental forces of physics—gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. A fundamental force or fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which matter particles interact with one another by exchanging something. That something is one of the fundamental forces.

Gravity was the first fundamental force to be identified but has yet to be fully understood. Gravity affects all matter particles. The laws of gravity, or the ways in which it affects particles, are well known. In regards to gravity, it is assumed that matter particles interact by exchanging gravitons. As of yet, gravitons have not been seen in particle accelerators. And, as previously mentioned, the laws of gravity as seen in our everyday world are incompatible with the phenomena seen at the quantum level. Thus, gravity is still a mystery in terms of both quantum physics and the standard model of particle physics.

Humans have had some awareness and understanding of electricity and magnetism since the dawn of man. Maxwell discovered the links between electricity and magnetism, unifying them into the single force of electromagnetism. He described their interactions in terms of waves and fields. Planck’s discovery of the quantum was the first step towards understanding how the electromagnetic force is carried by photons. Photons are the quantum particle associated with light waves or more generally electromagnetic radiation.25

The strong nuclear force (also called the strong force and the strong interaction) is the force that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other composite particles.26 The strong nuclear force also holds protons and neutrons together inside the nucleus of the atom. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. Eight different types of gluons have been identified.

The weak nuclear force (also called the weak force and the weak interaction) is the force that causes the beta type of nuclear decay in atoms. In the process, other forms of radiation occur. In other words, the weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactivity. Three different particles have been identified as carrying the weak nuclear force called weakons—the W , the W-, and the Z.

Fermions and Bosons

English: Standard model of elementary particle...

Standard model of elementary particles: the 12 fundamental fermions and 4 fundamental bosons... via Wikipedia

The standard model divides particles into two groups—matter particles and force-carrying particles. Matter particles are called fermions.27 Force-carrying particles (also called messenger particles) are called bosons.28

There are twelve elementary fermions and their twelve antiparticles. The twelve fermions are divided into six leptons and six quarks. Leptons are fermions such as the electron and the neutrino. Leptons are not influenced by the strong nuclear force.29 Quarks are matter particles that are influenced by the strong nuclear force. Six varieties of quarks have been identified.30 The six leptons are divided into three flavors, and the quarks are divided into three groups. Together the leptons and quarks are grouped into three generations or families.

The four forces are mediated by the force-carrying particles—bosons. The electromagnetic force is carried by photons. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. The weak nuclear force is carried by weakons. It is assumed that gravity is carried by gravitons.

Predictions of the Standard Model

An example of simulated data modelled for the ...

An example of simulated data modelled for the CMS particle detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Here, following a collision of two protons, a Higgs boson is produced which decays into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. The lines represent the possible paths of particles produced by the proton-proton collision in the detector while the energy these particles deposit is shown in blue via Wikipedia

The standard model predicts the existence of another boson called the Higgs boson and of superparticles. As mentioned above, some particles have mass and some do not. For example, photons and weakons have many similarities. They are the messenger particles of the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces. Their greatest difference is that of mass. Weakons have mass and photons do not. The electroweak theory unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces. According to this theory, these two forces were one force when the universe was very young and extreme temperatures and pressures existed. At that time the messenger particles of the two forces were symmetrical. In particle physics, symmetry refers to a characteristic of particles or physical systems. If, when a particle or physical system undergoes certain changes or transformations, other properties or characteristics of the particle or system remain unchanged, symmetry exists.

As the universe expanded and cooled, the symmetry of the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces broke, leaving massless photons and massive weakons. It is hypothesized the symmetry was broken by the Higgs mechanism, a phenomenon of the Higgs field. The Higgs field, proposed by the English physicist Peter Ware Higgs (ne. 1929), is a hypothetical, non-zero vacuum field believed to permeate all of space. The Higgs field is believed to be created or mediated by Higgs bosons, which have not yet been observed. If the Higgs field exists, then space is never empty.

In particle physics, supersymmetry is the theory that for every fermion (matter particle) there exists a corresponding boson (a force carrier) and that for every boson there exists a fermion. The corresponding particle in both cases is called a superparticle. The standard model predicts the existence of fermions, bosons, their superpartners, and their antiparticles. At this time no superparticles have been observed. The lack of evidence for the existence of superpartners may mean that current particle-accelerators are incapable of producing superpartners because of the heavy mass associated with superpartners. It is also possible that the theory of supersymmetry is incorrect.

Hadrons and Conceptons

Which physics theory is applicable in which domain by Loodog

A hadron is a composite, subatomic particle composed of quarks.31 Since quarks interact by means of the strong nuclear force, so do all hadrons. Hadrons are divided into mesons and baryons. Mesons are composed of an even number of quarks and antiquarks. Mesons are, in turn, divided into two categories based on the types of quarks and antiquarks they contain. Mesons are also called bosonic hadrons, because they convey the strong force. Approximately 140 types of mesons have been observed. Baryons, on the other hand, are made up of three quarks.32 Baryons are matter particles and, so, are called fermionic hadrons. Protons and neutrons are common baryons. Approximately 120 types of baryons have been observed. In case you wondered, there are also antihadrons, the antimatter equivalents of the hadrons. These are divided into antimesons and antibaryons, and so on.

All these particle names are part of the esoteric vocabulary of the quantum physicist. It is not important that you understand these concepts to the same degree that a quantum physicist understands them. You need only keep an open mind to understand the quantum mechanical view of nature33 and a willingness to free yourself of the constraints of everyday visualizable reality and to exercise the imagination freely.34 Quantum physics imparts an understanding of nature in which there is no radical separation between mind and world.35

And, if all these particle names do not appeal to you, I invite you to try on the approach of Richard Bach in Running from Safety:36 Some common positive conceptons are exhilarons, excytons, rhapsodons, jovions. Common negative conceptons include gloomons, tormentons, tribulons, agonons, and miserons. As you may surmise from a deeper understanding of quantum physics, his conceptons are not necessarily less real than those particles named by physicists.


1. Grof, 1985. Pp. 345-346.

2. Hawking, 1988, p. 187.

3. Gamow, 1961, pp. 51-88.

4. Gamow, 1961, pp. 27, McEvoy & Zarate, 1996, p. 5.

5. Gamow, 1961, pp. 27, 42, 48; Goswami, Reed, & Goswami, 1993, p. 141.

6. Gamow, 1961, pp. 27-32, 34, 42, 46-49, 50, 62, 205; Walker, 2000, pp. 15, 16; Wolf, 1988, pp. 18, 95, 295.

7. McEvoy & Zarate, 1996, p. 18.

8. McEvoy and Zarate, 1996.

9. McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, p. 4.

10. McFarlane, 2000.

11.  McFarlane, 2000.

12.  Ford, 2004, p. 46.

13.  Ford, 2004, pp. 184-200; McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, pp. 14, 110-119; Walker, 2000, pp. 48-49.

14.  McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, p. 14; Walker, 2000, p. 64.

15.  Laszlo, 2004, p. 31; Talbot, 1991, p. 7.

16.  Talbot, 1991, p. 33; Zohar, 1990, p. 21.

17.  Wolf, 1988, p. 327.

18.  Hawking, 1988, p. 186.

19.  Goswami, A., Reed, R. E., & Goswami, M., 1993, p. 282.

20.  Greene, 1999, p. 420.

21.  Bohm, 1980, pp. 162-164.

22.  McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, p.70.

23.  Lewis, 2003, p. 144.

24.  Greene, 2003, p. 413.

25.  Hey & Walters, 1987, p 169.

26.  Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 172.

27.  Lewis, 2003, p. 144.

28.  Greene, 2003, p. 415.

29.  Greene, 2003, p. 414.

30.  Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 171.

31.  Greene, 2003, p. 420.

32.  Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 171.

33.  Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 169.

34.  Nadeau, & Kafatos, 1999, p. 39.

35.  Nadeau, & Kafatos, 1999, p. 39.

36.  Nadeau, & Kafatos, 1999, p. 39.

37.  Bach, 1994, p. 181.


1. Bach, R. (1988). One: A novel. New York, NY: Dell Publishing. Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

2. Ford, K. W. (2004). The quantum world: Quantum physics for everyone. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.

3. Gamow, G. (1961). The great physicists from Galileo to Einstein (Biography of physics). New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.

4. Goswami, A., Reed, R. E., & Goswami, M. (1993). The self-aware universe: How consciousness creates the material world. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

5. Greene, B. (1999). The elegant universe: Superstrings, hidden dimensions, and the quest for the ultimate theory. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

6. Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany, NY: State University of New York.

7. Hawking, S. (1988). A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

8. Hey, T., & Walters, P. (1987). The quantum universe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

9. Laszlo, E. (2004). Science and the akashic field: An integral theory of everything. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

10.  Lewis, L. E., Jr. (2003). Our superstring universe: Strings, branes, extra dimensions and superstring-m theory. New York, NY: iUniverse, Inc.

11.  McEvoy, J. P., & Zarate, O. (1996). Introducing Quantum Theory. Lanham, MD: Totem Books.

12.  McFarlane, T. J. (June 21, 2000). Quantum physics, depth psychology, and beyond (Rev. ed.). Retrieved February 18, 2005, from

13.  Nadeau, R., & Kafatos, M. (1999). The non-local universe: The new physics and matters of the mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

14.  Talbot, M. (1991). The holographic universe. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

15.  Walker, E. H. (2000). The physics of consciousness: Quantum minds and the meaning of life. New York, NY: Basic Books.

16.  Wolf, F. A. (1988). Parallel universes: The search for other worlds. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

17.  Zohar, D. (1990). Quantum self. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company. Inc.

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About the Author

Gene F. Collins, Jr., Ph.D. has been counseling, consulting, teaching, and writing in the areas of astrology, numerology, tarot, meditation, metaphysics, psychology, psychotherapy, transpersonal psychology, and parapsychology for over 45 years. He is the author of Cosmopsychology – The Psychology of Humans as Spiritual Beings (2009) and Cosmopsychology — A Holistic Approach to Natal Astrology (2011). He has served as a clinical psychologist, mental health counselor, and psychotherapist in a variety of settings including major university, government, and private medical centers, psychiatric hospitals, and mental health centers in both Florida and Illinois. He is a retired licensed psycholoist in Florida and a retired licensed clinical psychologist in Illinois.


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