Time travel is arguably the most fascinating topic in all of science fiction. If you are a fan of science fiction consider for a moment your favourite movies, books and episodes of television shows.
Which were the best episodes of Star Trek for example in all of its incarnations? Which episode would you consider to be the absolute best out of all the series? Think about your favourite movies and decide which is best out of straight adventure and exploration, fighting off monsters or the mind bending stories involving time travel.
There are two directions of possible travel, namely into the future or into the past. The truth is that travel into the future is not a problem and can be accomplished in a number of ways some of which are practical and others which are theoretically possible given future advances in technology.
Time dilation as proposed by Einstein as velocity approaches the speed of light. This has been verified even here on Earth by clocks travelling in high speed flight or in orbit and also by observing cosmic rays.
Suspended animation by freezing or even hibernation which the bears regularly do.
The normal aging process which takes our consciousness into the future at the steady rate of one second per second.
Now factor in things like black holes, wormholes, folded space, string theory etc and we have many possibilities to consider.
Now time travel into the past looks on the surface to be impossible because of the many paradoxes that it implies. However the laws of Physics are symmetrical and there is actually nothing in the laws that prohibits backward travel in time.
It is the exploring of the paradoxes that breathes life into the whole concept of time travel. The best known one is of course any variation on the so called ‘grandfather paradox’. This is where the time traveller goes back in time and murders his own grandfather before he gets around to fathering his father which means that the time traveller was never born which means that he never went back in time which means that he never killed his grandfather which means…well you get the picture.
In my Time Travel Novels I have explored many variations on this paradox and others. One explanation is that there are an infinite number of universes so every possibility is allowed for. Another is the theory that an event becomes its own cause so that whatever the time traveller does in the past it was meant to happen in the first place in order to set his existence in motion.
Think about any time travel story that you have ever seen or read and you will realise that they all involve a giant circle which appears to close on itself. The trick is in trying to pick where the break is in the circle.
About the Author
I had a good childhood as childhoods go. I didn’t like school very much and yet I went on to become a high school Maths teacher. After five years of that I returned to university to finish my own full-time study in Applied Mathematics IV. Around this time I began a part-time career as a lecturer in Engineering Studies at the University of Western Sydney.
The groundwork for the person that I am today was always there though because I have always had a love for anything to do with science fiction. After Life Novels
Originally posted on Shamagaia:
“The Journey of a thousand miles begin begins with a single step.”
A healing journey which had begun with Japanese herbal remedies from the super-market, now had me lying on a padded table in the treatment room of a certified Japanese Reiki master. He had been silently removing what I then only had the vocab to describe as, “dirty big knots of bad mojo,” from my energy meridians. Dredging me up from the depths of a sublime state of semi-consciousness, he intoned casually: “You lived a past life in Japan, about one thousand years ago.”
Later that week, after a few pints of beer down at a local bar, I decided to hazard a half-humorous retelling of the Reiki master’s claim to a group of my foreign teaching buddies: bad idea. A couple of them laughed their asses off…
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Author: Lee Hager
Scientists have been working toward a ‘Theory of Everything’ (TOE) for some time. Many scientists feel such a theory would not only be a triumph of human reason, it would also be a way to nullify the existence of God. Their goal has been elusive, and in fact, much of their research points toward the existence of intelligence working within the universe.
Scientists use terms like ‘accident, coincidence’ and ‘lucky break’ when they explain why life on earth is possible. But how many of these fortuitous occurrences must take place before the evidence demands a different explanation? Let’s look at several scientific discoveries that carry the stamp of intelligent design.
The Big Bang and the Theory of Inflation
Scientists estimate the visible universe came into existence nearly 14 billion years ago during a colossal explosion known as the Big Bang. The name implies that the birth or the universe was a mishap, but let’s look at evidence that tells quite a different story.
Alan Guth first suggested the theory of inflation, which is now supported by research. Guth proposed that when the universe was less than a trillionth of a trillionth of a second old, it experienced an extremely brief, hyper-explosive growth spurt. Steven Hawking compares it to expanding a small coin to ten times the size of the Milky Way in far less than a second! Hawking explains that if this expansion had been slower, the universe would probably still be cooling.
When an explosion takes place on earth, debris flies erratically, but the big bang caused the universe to expand in an extremely uniform manner. However, the expansion still contained just the right amount of dense irregularities needed for gravity to bring stars, planets and galaxies into existence. Without this delicate balance of uniformity and irregularity, galaxies that support life couldn’t exist.
The combined forces in the big bang meant that our entire universe came into existence from an infinitesimally tiny amount of ‘source material.’ How small? Research demonstrates it was somewhere between one ounce and a billionth the size of a subatomic proton! Some scientists claim the universe came from nothing. But the Upanishads, written by ancient spiritual sages, said that God made the universe from Self. Evidence supports the Upanishad, but that shouldn’t surprise us. After all, life on earth is reproduced using the ‘source material’ of the parents.
The universe has been expanding ever since the big bang and scientists have calculated the expansion is speeding up. If that’s the case, what keeps the universe from flying apart? Although the universe appears to be filled with ‘empty space,’ it’s far from empty. Two thirds of the universe is a seething ocean of quantum energy that far outweighs matter. Scientists have been unable to explain why this impossible disparity exists, but they do feel that this ‘dark energy’ opposes gravity and is responsible for keeping the universe stable as it expands. This ‘cosmological constant’ is very finely tuned. Without it, the universe would have either imploded or been ripped apart.
Goldilocks Zone and the Anthropic Principle
In the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Goldilocks wasn’t satisfied until she found the chair, bed and porridge that were ‘just right.’ Scientists liken the placement of the earth in the Milky Way Galaxy to this story since it’s ‘just right’ to sustain life. If earth was in a star system with two suns, our planet would travel too close and too far from those suns to sustain life. As it is, the orbit of planets in a one sun system varies from nearly circular to nearly oval. An oval obit causes a planet to experience huge temperature extremes. However, the earth’s orbit is very close to circular, which allows it to remain within the ‘just right’ temperature ranges that support life.
The earth would be frozen or broiled if the sun’s mass, or the earth’s distance from the sun, weren’t in perfect balance or the earth’s axis wasn’t tilted exactly as it is. This safe zone allows water to remain liquid, and as we all know, water is essential to life. The safe zone is quite small and even minor changes could cause catastrophic problems.
Many scientists ask whether earth was made perfect for us, or are we the only possible result of the conditions we enjoy?However, scientists agree that life is possible only because of the very specific way the universe was formed and the extremely delicate ‘fine tuning’ that keeps it operating. The ‘anthropic principle’ suggests that the entire universe was purposely prepared in advance with all the necessary elements needed to support the specific type of life that exists on earth.
Carbon is essential to life, but carbon is not among the elements that first appeared after the big bang (hydrogen, helium and lithium). The formation of carbon demands very specific circumstances that take place within aging stars. However, this process also requires a perfect set of circumstances that will allow stars to explode, scatter their elements and then let the elements reform as new stars and planets. Physicists estimate this process took 10 billion years to unfold.
The energy levels needed to produce the large amounts of carbon necessary for life are statistically highly improbable, yet this energy was found.Fred Hoyle, the scientist who predicted its existence said, ‘A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature.’ Hoyle had been an atheist until his calculations were proven correct.
Life depends on the fine tuning of ten critical properties such as gravity and electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces. Scientists agree that the tiniest differences in any of these factors would produce an entirely different outcome. There are also thirty or more ‘constants,’ that may also be subject to fine tuning. And remember, these forces and constants have operated harmoniously for billions of years! So far, scientists have been unable to find any laws that would account for these forces being adjusted as they are.
It takes only a moment on the internet to find several mathematical equations demonstrating the impossibility of evolution. There are incredible odds against the universe coming into existence as the result of coincidence. The odds against life springing from a collection of chemicals are even greater. Estimates suggest the statistical odds that one single celled organism could come into existence by chance during a period of 5 billion years, is 1 x 10 to the 100 billionth power.
Evolution requires thousands of purposeful intermediate transitional forms that supposedly occur over millions of years. But even considering the billions of years the universe has existed, it’s still not nearly long enough to accommodate the math. On top of that, scientists have no idea how information was encoded within DNA. Again they turn to chance, but this additional problem just adds an even greater degree of mathematical impossibility.
Although scientists say the fossil record is quite complete, it contains no transitional forms between ‘kinds,’ ‘types’ or ‘Species.’ During the Cambrian period (500-550 million years ago), an explosion of highly complex life forms suddenly showed up, but they had no ancestors they could have evolved from. This sudden arrival of complex, unrelated life forms is a pattern that has taken place again and again throughout the history of the earth.
But evolution has an even greater problem: Consciousness. Material realists believe only matter exists. They claim that consciousness is a brain function that evolved from matter and is itself a form of matter. However, quantum physics has quite a different story to tell.
Our Conscious Universe
If you could see the universe at its most elemental level, you would find no separate forms. Why? Everything in the universe is one thing. Our universe is actually a seething field of interconnected, indivisible energy that’s permeated by consciousness. Everything in the universe, down to the smallest particle, is alive and conscious.
Consciousness also plays an extremely important role in creation. Subatomic particles exist in a state of potential with no set or stable state until they’re influenced by consciousness. Once a conscious choice is made, all other potential possibilities collapse and the energy appears in a set state as matter. When Genesis tells us ‘And God said, ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light,’ it is quite accurate in the description of thought bringing matter into existence.
Evolutionary scientists tell us that the universe came out of nothing, by accident, and continues to exist through an incredible series of lucky breaks. Quantum physics tells us that all energy is life and life is energy. Scientists agree that energy can transform into matter and matter into energy, but nothing is lost in the process. In other words, everything that’s always been within the universe is still there, and always will be. It’s all alive and will remain alive. So, within the universe we find the consciousness, energy and life force needed to spark the big bang, keep the universe finely tuned and cover the earth with life forms.
Our Shifting Paradigm
Many scientists have turned to evolution because they find no scientific basis to believe in a creator that exists outside the universe. But many physicists have recently come to the conclusion the quantum model solves that problem. How? They understand the energy, matter and consciousness filled universe to be one thing; God and the universe are synonymous. This agrees with the teachings of many spiritual sages, but it also creates a problem for religionists who insist God creates and manages the universe from outside it.
Quantum physics offers the opportunity for a vital synergy between science and religion, but each will have to be willing to listen to what the universe is trying to tell them. Regardless of what scientists or religionists do, we are all free to let go of outdated concepts and step into the emerging quantum/spiritual paradigm.
Copyright ©Lee and Steven Hager
About the Author
Lee Hager and her husband Steven are the authors of The Beginning of Fearlessness: Quantum Prodigal Son, a spiritual quest and scientific adventure based on Jesus’ parable of the prodigal son, quantum physics and the gnostic gospels.
For more information on the synergy of science and spirituality and a free 6 part video eCourse, ‘Obstacles to Spiritual Growth,’ visit their website and blog at: http://www.thebeginningoffearlessness.com
Author: Gene F. Collins, Jr., Ph.D.
The laws of nature are but
the mathematical thoughts of God.
Math, science, history
Unraveling the mystery
It all started with a Big Bang
—The Barenaked Ladies
This article presents the historical development of classical and quantum physics. It is intended for the layman who is interested in New Age topics, metaphysics, and spirituality. This is the first of four intended to provide background information that can serve as a bridge between modern physics and ancient metaphysics. The second article concerns the spooky behavior of matter at the quantum level, such as spatial and temporal nonlocality, i.e., the disappearance of time and space. The third article summarizes the holographic model of the universe, and the fourth introduces string theory and brane cosmology. If you start to get overwhelmed by new terms or concepts, don’t panic. You will not be tested on it later.
The present article begins with the publication of Sir Isaac Newton’s discovery of gravity and the publication of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1686. Newton’s treatise marked the end of what was called natural philosophy and the beginning of classical physics. It goes on to describe how quantum physics was developed in order to account for the inadequacies of classical physics regarding the properties of light and the electromagnetic spectrum. The essential theoretical differences between classical and quantum physics are presented, including such phenomena as wave-particle duality, quantum jumps, the quantum wave function, and non-causal correlations between particles. The philosophical implications for scientific determinism are explored. The standard model of particle physics and the four forces are also included.
In our everyday experience, we are aware of ourselves, other people, houses, cars, cats, and dogs as distinct and separate things. We know that all these things are made up of matter, and all things made of matter seem to follow certain natural laws of space and time. For instance, in this world that we experience daily, no two objects can occupy the exact same space at the exact same time, and no object can be in two or more places at once. In this world described classical physics, time moves in one direction—from the past to the present and into the future.
We know that matter is acted upon or interacts with energy (or force). Matter appears in three states—solid, liquid, and gas. (There is a possible fourth state—plasma, but we do not ordinarily encounter it.) Some things made of matter are solid like trees and buildings; some things are liquid like water, milk, and oil; and some things are gases like the air in the atmosphere and the helium in a balloon. Applying energy in the form of heat can turn solid matter into liquid matter and liquid matter into gaseous matter. Removing heat can turn gaseous matter into liquid matter and liquid matter into solid matter.
Grof referred to this normal, ordinary, everyday state that is matter-oriented as hylotropic consciousness:
In the hylotropic mode of consciousness, an individual experiences himself or herself as a solid physical entity with definite boundaries and with a limited sensory range. The world appears to be made of separate material objects and has distinctly Newtonian characteristics: time is linear, space is three-dimensional, and all events seem to be governed by chains of causes and effects. Experiences in this mode support systematically a number of basic assumptions about the world, such as: matter is solid; two objects cannot occupy the same space; past events are irretrievably lost; future events are not experientially available; one cannot be in more than one place at a time;1
The Classical Physics of Sir Isaac Newton
Physics, or natural philosophy as it was once called, is the study of the natural or material world and its phenomena. It is the science of matter, energy, and their interactions. Classical physics is the scientific discipline that studies matter and energy and describes the natural laws that govern them.
Classical physics was born July 5, 1686.2 With the financial backing of the English Astronomer Royal Edmond Halley (1656-1742), English astrologer and alchemist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) published his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In his Philosophiæ, Newton presented his three laws of motion, his work on calculus, and his theory of gravity. Newton based much of his work on the ideas of the Prussian astronomer, astrologer, cleric, and military commander Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the Danish astrologer and alchemist Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the Tuscan astrologer and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the German astrologer and mathematician Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), and the French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), the father of modern philosophy. Newton’s Philosophiæ secured him the Presidency of the Royal Society in 1703.
Newton’s law of universal gravitation was the birth, and later the death, of classical physics. According to Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the force of gravity (F) between two objects (for example, the sun and earth, the earth and an apple, or the sun and an apple) could be determined by multiplying the mass (in kilograms) of the first object (m1) by the mass (in kilograms) of the second object (m2) and by the gravitational constant (G), and then dividing the result by the square of the distance between the two objects (r). Newton’s formula for gravity is written as F = Gm1m2/r2. The G is a constant called the gravitational constant, Newton’s constant, and the universal gravitational constant and has been determined to equal the product of (6.67428 ± 0.00067) x 10-11m3kg-1s-2. G is approximately equal to 6.674 x 10-11N(m/kg)2.
Newton’s law of universal gravitation works well in classical physics, which deals with objects larger than atoms. Three centuries later, after the discovery and development of quantum physics, particle-physics, and the standard model, Newton’s formula brought about an abrupt halt in the progress of physics. In the quantum-particle-standard-model version of physics that developed during the 20th-century, the smallest particles of matter—electrons, quarks, etc.—are assumed to be point particles with no dimensions—no length, no height, no depth. With no length, no height, and no depth, point particles have no distance between them. That is, r (the distance between any two point particles) equals zero. Therefore, r2 equals 0 x 0 = 0. Anything (in this case Gm1m2) divided by 0 equals ∞ (infinity), that is, F = Gm1m2/02 or F = ∞.
Thus, according to Newton’s formula, the force of gravity is infinitely strong between any two point-particles. If this were true, no particles of matter would be able to separate into individual particles. There would be no space existing between particles. What is important to understand here is that when the classical physics model or equation for the strength of gravity is applied to the point-particles of quantum physics, the result (infinity) is impossible. Gravity, as understood by classical physics, is not compatible with quantum physics. Therefore, classical physics and quantum physics are incompatible. They cannot readily be combined into one theory or model that explains all of physical reality. (Gravity presents other challenges to the quantum physics model that render classical physics and quantum physics incompatible and therefore fails to provide a complete model or theory of the physical universe.)
In addition to gravity and planetary motion, Newton gave us his three laws of motion: the law of inertia, the law of acceleration, and the law of reciprocal actions. Newton’s law of inertia states that a physical body will remain at rest if it is at rest, or continue to move at a constant velocity if it is moving, unless an outside force acts upon it. Newton’s law of acceleration states that the net force on a body is equal to its mass multiplied by its acceleration. His law of reciprocal actions states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
In addition to his contributions to physics, Newton was an astrologer, an alchemist, and a Rosicrucian. His occult or esoteric analysis of the Bible led him to predict that the world as we know it would end in 2060 and be replaced with a new heaven and a new earth. As mentioned above, Newton, Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo, and Kepler were each either astrologers, alchemists, or both. Even Descartes is believed to have been a Rosicrucian, a member of one of the ancient, mystical orders of the Rosy Cross.
The Heliocentric Solar System, Electromagnetic Fields, and Einstein’s Relativity
The early Christian church had adopted the Aristotle/Ptolemy or geocentric model of the universe, that is, the idea that the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars revolved around the Earth in perfectly circular orbits. Church authorities believed that this model was the one and only model of the universe endorsed by the Bible. In 1514, Copernicus resurrected the ancient, heliocentric model that the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun in circular orbits.3 Galileo and Johannes Kepler publicly supported the Copernican model.4
In 1609 Galileo revealed that he had observed moons orbiting Jupiter. Galileo’s observations also called into question the belief that all celestial bodies must orbit the Earth. This crack in the Aristotle/Ptolemy model opened the door to the possibility that the other bodies (the Sun, Mercury, etc.) did not necessarily orbit the Earth. By replacing Copernicus’ circular orbits with elliptical ones, Kepler was able to predict the motion of the planets accurately. In his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton analyzed the elliptical motion of the planets and, using his law of universal gravitation, explained the planetary orbits.
During the two hundred years following Newton’s work, our understanding of the physical universe grew thanks to the experimental science of classical physics. Then, in the late 1800’s, classical physics took a dramatic turn. Building on the work of English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867), Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) expanded the realm of classical physics with his unified model of electromagnetism.5 He demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves moving at the speed of light. In 1861 Maxwell theorized that light waves gave rise to both electric and magnetic fields. Maxwell discovered that the universe was made up of fields of energy that interact with one another. His research led to field theory physics, a sub-field of classical physics.
German-born physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) expanded the realm of classical physics even further with his special theory of relativity in 1905 and his general theory of relativity in 1915. With his special theory of relativity, Einstein demonstrated that the independence of the speed of light required actual physical changes in the spacetime framework. His general theory of relativity demonstrated that the mass-energy of matter and its momentum create actual curvatures in spacetime fabric.
McEvoy and Zarate distilled the worldview according to classical physics into six basic assumptions:
The first basic assumption is that classical physics regards the universe as a giant machine, set in a framework of absolute time and space (or relative time and space thanks to Einstein). The laws of motion in the universe are understood to be similar to the laws of motion of a machine. Any complicated movements that cannot be easily understood by the machine analogy could be broken down into simpler movements until they resemble mechanical motion.
The second assumption is that each and every motion has a cause. The universe can be understood as a chain of causes and their effects. This assumption is referred to as the law of cause and effect, or the law of causality.
The third assumption is that if the state of motion is known at one point, it can be determined at any other point in the future or the past. This principle is known as determinism.
According to the fourth basic assumption, the properties of light are completely described by Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory and have been confirmed by experimentation.
The fifth assumption is that there are two physical models representing energy—the particle model and the wave model. The models are mutually exclusive; energy must be either a particle or a wave, but never both.
And sixth is that it is possible to measure to any degree of accuracy the properties of a system like its temperature, speed, or mass.6
Classical Physics and Determinism
Classical physics describes the motion of objects in terms of position, mass, force, velocity, and acceleration in a four-dimensional context of space and time. Classical physics has been applied successfully to the behavior of solids, liquids, and gasses. Its laws have also been successfully applied to objects as large as planets, stars, and galaxies. Given an accurate description of every particle in the universe at some particular moment, classic physics can predict the subsequent development of the universe with nearly complete accuracy. This characteristic of classical physics is known as determinism or casual determinism.
Classical physics is dominated by the principle of complete determinism. Theoretically, everything is predetermined. Every event is causally determined by a chain of prior events. Future events are completely predictable because they are causally determined by a combination of physical laws and of past and present events. Even the thoughts, emotions, and actions of every individual are caused by past external and internal physiological events.
The determinism of classical physics is also referred to as the clockwork universe theory. According to classical physics, the universe works like a perfect machine, like a gigantic clockwork wound up by the hand of God and left to run on its own. Due to his religious beliefs, Newton was never comfortable with the deterministic nature of his physical laws, but he was unable to find a reasonable alternative.
The determinism of classical physic excludes the phenomena of consciousness and free will. In classical physics, consciousness and free will are epiphenomena, i.e., secondary phenomena that result from the electrochemical activity in the brain. According to this viewpoint, there is no value in studying either consciousness or free will because they do not affect or interact with the physical universe. If either did affect the physical universe, the clockwork universe theory would have to be abandoned in favor of a theory that includes such immaterial variables.
The clockwork universe theory suffered a temporary blow by the German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-1888) and his second law of thermodynamics.7 The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. In other words, without an input of energy from some outside force, a system loses energy and order. It decays. The second law of thermodynamics suggests that, without some outside source of energy, the clockwork universe will wind down and stop.
Entropy is also the basis for the claim by classical physics that time can move in only one direction. Take an egg, for example. There is a certain order in the composition of the typical bird’s egg—its shell, its yolk, etc. If the egg is broken, there is a loss of order in the egg’s structure. Returning the egg to its pre-broken form is impossible according to classical physics and the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, it is impossible to move backwards in time.
Determinism and the clockwork universe theory suffered their greatest blow by the spooky behavior displayed by atoms and subatomic particles. Although classical physics is useful in the prediction of the behavior of matter and energy at the macroscopic level—our everyday level of reality, the laws of classical physics fail to predict the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. It is this spooky behavior at the atomic and subatomic levels that led to the development of quantum physics.
From Classical Physics to the Mysterious Universe of the Quantum
At the ordinary level of everyday consciousness, we know ourselves, others, and the world through our physical senses—vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Some of us are born with one or more of these senses missing; some of us are born with one or more of these senses strongly emphasized; and some seem to be born with one or more of these senses so finely attuned that the phenomena of higher sensory or extrasensory perception comes to mind.
Everything in our ordinary, everyday world of distinct objects is made up of atoms. Atoms are made up of electrons, protons, quarks, and other subatomic particles. Every solid object, including your own physical body, is composed of these ultramicroscopic particles. Anything that exists in the real or macro-world exists in the world of atoms and subatomic particles. The world of atoms and subatomic particles is the world of the quantum, where matter and energy no longer obey the rules of classical physics.
Quantum physics is the specialized branch of physics that deals with matter and energy as it exists at the levels of atoms and of subatomic particles. Quantum physics was born on December 14, 1900, when the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) published his work on the quantum nature of light. At the time, no one suspected that his findings were the beginning of an entirely new, scientific model for understanding reality.
The following century saw discoveries in both classical and quantum physics. Since no scientific field of study stands alone, completely independent of all others, advances in classical and quantum physics have mutually influenced one another. Sometimes a physicist works in both classical and quantum physics. For example, in 1905 Einstein published papers on his special theory of relativity, a topic germane to classical physics. The same year he published a paper on the photoelectric effect, a phenomenon of quantum physics.
Classical physics takes a materialistic worldview and describes reality as consisting ‘of a fixed and passive space containing localized material particles whose movement in time is deterministically governed by mathematical laws.’8 ‘Consciousness, thought, and mental phenomena are viewed as mere epiphenomenon of matter’9 and ‘nothing more than the complex functions of the material brain governed by physical laws.’10 However, at the quantum level, the deterministic laws of classical physics no longer apply and consciousness becomes the major player.
James Clerk Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Spectrum
Most of what we refer to as energy colloquially is often some part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum consists of various types or forms of energy including visible light, infrared light, ultraviolet light, radio and television waves, microwaves, x-rays, and gamma rays (Figure 53). As mentioned earlier, in 1861 James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space, in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light. He theorized that the energies of the electromagnetic spectrum consist of moving waves of varying frequencies that travel through space and spread out or radiate as they travel.
The energies of the electromagnetic spectrum consist of moving waves of varying frequencies. The higher the frequency, the more energy it contains. In addition to frequency (measured as cycles per second or Hertz), the energies of the electromagnetic spectrum can be measured as wavelengths (meters) and as energy (electron volts).
The waves or vibrations of the electromagnetic spectrum penetrate both space and matter. When electromagnetic waves penetrate matter, they can add to or increase the energy of the matter at the level of subatomic particles, thus increasing the motion of the subatomic particles and the motion of the atoms that make up the matter of an object. For example, when a heated object is applied to some part of the body, the heat radiates into that body part, increasing the energy of the atoms of the particular body part. The end result is that the body part feels warmer.
However, if the electromagnetic waves deliver too much energy to the body part, the motion of the subatomic particles increases and the particles escape the atoms, causing the atoms to combine with other types of atoms. The end result is that the body part is burned or destroyed.
In addition to electromagnetic waves, we are surrounded by waves or vibrations carried primarily by matter. Explosions, earthquakes, and animal stampedes cause solid matter to vibrate. Tossing a stone into a lake creates waves in the water. The air (a combination of gasses) carries sound waves, including the sounds of human speech.
As human animals, we have specialized sensory organs that detect certain ranges or frequencies of waves. Our eyes detect what we call visible light. Our ears pick up a particular range of sound waves in the air. We have a variety of receptors that detect waves and moment in solid objects like the movement of escalators and movements of the earth during an earthquake.
There are many wave frequencies for which our bodies lack receptors, such as radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays to name a few. Just because we cannot sense such frequencies does not mean that these rays do not affect us. Over-exposure to such rays can result in burns, sickness, and death.
We are surrounded and penetrated by a multitude of waves. Waves are everywhere, and they crisscross or collide with one another continuously. Waves of similar amplitudes and frequencies may combine, producing waves of new amplitudes and frequencies. Waves of opposite amplitudes may cancel each other out. Whatever the end result, when waves produced by two or more sources cross one another, they interfere with each other. The resulting new pattern is referred to as an interference pattern.
Max Planck’s Quantum Physics
Quantum physics arose out of classical physics in an effort to answer questions about atoms and subatomic particles that classical physics could not handle satisfactorily. That is, the laws of classical physics predicted that experiments with atoms and subatomic particles should produce certain results. However, the experiments turned out differently. Quantum physics is that body of knowledge that grew out of the best intellectual efforts to make sense of these strange results.
For example, according to classical physics, when a black-body is heated, it should emit energy at various wave lengths of the electromagnetic spectrum—heat, microwaves, light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and cosmic rays. A black-body is anything that normally absorbs all the wave lengths of visible light that strike it; a black-body does not reflect any visible light and, thus, appears black to us. A piece of coal or sealed box might be a good example of a black-body.
When coal is heated, classical physics predicts that all wave lengths of the electromagnetic spectrum should be emitted. If we are standing next to a fi re place that is burning coal, we feel the heat and see the coal turn a reddish-orange. Classical physics, in general, and electromagnetic wave theory, in particular, predicts that energy emitted from the black-body should take the form of light waves of various frequencies, changing in a continuous manner as the energy of the black-body is increased or decreased. However, Planck observed that the changes in light waves were not continuous—that is, they did not flow smoothly from one frequency to the next.
In order to understand the failure of classical physics to predict the black-body phenomenon correctly, Planck proposed that light and similar waves could not be emitted in a continuous manner as the wave lengths varied. Instead, light consisted of discrete units, which he called quanta. Each quantum carried energy of a specific wave length. Each quantum of light had a certain amount of energy; the greater the energy, the higher the frequency of the waves carried by the quanta. Planck calculated the energy of each quantum, using the formula E = hv, where E is the energy of each quantum, v is the quantum’s frequency, and h, referred to as Planck’s constant, is 6.63 X 10-34 joule-seconds.
In effect, what Planck was proposing is that, instead of continuous waves of energy, light took the form of individual packets or particles. Planck used the Latin word quantum, meaning a specific, discrete amount, to describe these packets of light energy.
Until then, the electromagnetic spectrum was thought of as waves of continuous frequencies. Now, Planck was describing light, as well as all the other waves of the electromagnetic spectrum, as particles. According the classical physics, energy could be either waves or particles, but not both. In 1905 Albert Einstein presented additional evidence supporting the theory that light manifested as particles. When certain metals are struck by a beam of light, they emit (release) electrons. This process is referred to as the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect was at odds with the electromagnetic wave theory of light, which described light as waves. Einstein proposed that this effect was the result of the particle nature of light. Using the particle concept and a numerical constant discovered by Planck, Einstein was able to predict accurately the energy changes seen in the photoelectric effect.
One of the best ways to conceive of this different interpretation of light is to imagine light as a ball rolling down a ramp. This is the classical interpretation of light as a continuous wave. The ball rolls down the ramp in a continuous manner even if it changes speeds.
Now imagine a ball bouncing down a staircase. This is the new interpretation of light as a discrete particle. Light, as a particle, jumps from one step or from one level of energy to the next.
The particles or quanta of light were later called as photons. We now know that sometimes visible light appears as if it were made of photons and displays the characteristics expected of particles of matter. At other times, light displays the characteristics expected of waves. This duality of light is referred to as the complementary principle. Further research has concluded that all forms of energy can manifest as either waves or particles.
As it turns out, this wave-particle complementary principle is not only a characteristic of energy, but of all matter and force fields at the quantum level.11 In 1924 the French Prince Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) proposed that electrons as well as all forms of matter also appear as waves under the right circumstances.12 ‘Matter waves’ have frequencies, amplitudes, and wave lengths like energy waves. However, the wave lengths of matter waves are extremely short, too short for observation under most experimental conditions today. The short wave lengths also contribute to our perception of matter as solid, or fairly solid in the case of liquids and gasses. Later, it was discovered by the British physicist Paul Dirac (1902-1984) that every particle of matter also behaves like a wave. In what became the quantum field theory, every force field also has its own kind of particle that carries that particular force.13
Quantum Mechanics, Theory, and Physics
Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior of atoms and subatomic particles.14 It describes the nature of atoms and their building blocks, the subatomic particles—electrons, protons, and neutrons.15
Quantum physics (or quantum mechanics) has been defined as the theory of the behavior of matter and energy, particularly at the level of atoms and subatomic particles,16as the theory developed from Planck’s quantum principle and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle,17as a physical theory based on the idea of the quantum (a discrete amount) and quantum jumps (a discontinuous transition)—first discovered in connection with atomic objects,18 and as the framework of laws governing the universe whose unfamiliar features such as uncertainty, quantum fluctuations, and wave-particle duality become most apparent on the ultramicroscopic scales of atoms and subnuclear particles.19
By the end of the 1920’s, physicists had developed a largely theoretical body of thought or quantum theory to explain a number of observed oddities in the behavior of subatomic particles. According to quantum theory, reality at the quantum level does not exist separately from or independently of human observation—reality comes into existence only when it is observed or measured by the human mind. The orthodox interpretation of quantum theory states that there is no deeper level of reality than that studied by quantum physics. However, many quantum physicists disagree concerning this ‘orthodox’ interpretation of quantum physics.
According to physicist David Bohm (1917-1992), quantum theory has four primary features:
The first feature is the indivisibility of the quantum action. In classical physics, when something moves from one state of being (position, etc.), there is a continuous series of intermediate states between the initial state and the final state. But when a quantum particle moves from an initial state to a final state, there are no intermediate states. The movement is said to be discontinuous. The quantum particle vanishes from one location and instantly reappears in another. This action is referred to as a quantum jump.
The second feature is the wave-particle duality properties of quantum particles. Subatomic particles, such as electrons, can show different properties (e.g., particle-like, wave-like, or something in between), depending on the environmental context within which they exist and are subject to observation. Under some conditions they behave like waves, while under other conditions they behave like particles. Yet, they are always both waves and particles. This paradox is the complementary principle mentioned above.
The third feature is that the laws of quantum mechanics are statistical and do not determine individual future events uniquely and precisely. The properties of matter are revealed in terms of statistical potentialities. That is, at the quantum level, every physical situation is characterized by a quantum wave function. This quantum wave function is not directly related to the actual properties of an individual object, event, or process. Instead, it is a sum of probability curves. Each curve gives the probability or likelihood that a particular object, event, or process will occur. Each of these potential situations are mutually incompatible; i.e., only one can manifest or be actualized. There is no way to determine which one will manifest; there are only probabilities associated with each possible outcome.
The fourth feature of quantum physics is what is referred to as non-causal correlations. Two particles, such as electrons, which were initially part of a quantum system, when separated, show a peculiar non-local relationship, which can best be described as a non-causal connection, no matter how far apart they are (as demonstrated in the experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen). That is, when two or more quantum particles have been associated with each other and are subsequently separated by time and/or space, whatever happens to one of the quantum particles is instantaneously reflected in the other quantum particle. According to Einstein’s theories of relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. However, no matter how distant in time/or space two or more correlated (related, associated) particles are, there exists some form of instantaneous information sharing among them. Because this sharing is instantaneous, it takes place faster than the speed of light. Physicists disagree as to how this information sharing occurs.20
Point-Particles and the Standard Model
Particle physics is the study of the basic elements of matter and of the four fundamental forces. Ironically, particle physics got its start about four hundred years before the birth of Christ. The Greek philosopher Democritus (ca. 460 BC-ca. 370 BC) and his student Leucippus proposed that matter was composed of indivisible units called atoma or atoms. According to Democritus, atoms were indestructible and in constant motion. Atoms came in various forms, shapes, and sizes and occupied empty space. The soul was made up of particularly fine, spherical atoms.
Twenty-four hundred years later the atomic theory was revived when J. J. Thomson (1856-1940) discovered the electron in 1897.21 The proton was discovered in 1919 by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), the father of nuclear physics. Nuclear physics is the study of the atom and its nucleus, subatomic particles, and their interactions. Radioactive decay, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion are phenomena covered by nuclear physics.
The neutron was discovered in 1932 James Chadwick (1891-1974). Eleven years earlier (in 1921) Chadwick and E. S. Bieler proposed the existence of the strong nuclear force. The first particle accelerator, a 9-inch cyclotron, was built at the University of California Berkeley in 1931. As more and more powerful accelerators came on line, a pantheon of subatomic particles were discovered or created. The list of elementary and composite particles continued to grow. Murray Gell-Mann and Kazuhiko Nishijima independently suggested the existence of quarks in 1961.
In 1974 Greek physicist John Iliopoulos presented the standard model of particle physics. The standard model evolved as new discoveries in quantum mechanics were made. The standard theory treats the particles of matter and the force-carrying particles as point-particles. Point-particles are particles without length, width, or depth. Some point-particles have mass; most do not. It does not account for gravity and Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The standard theory has been very successful in explaining experimental data arising from quantum mechanics. However, physicists must turn to general relativity to explain our larger universe.22
Over 200 subatomic particles have been discovered. Most of these are composite particles, made of two or more elementary particles. Some particles are virtual particles, lasting for extremely short time periods. Virtual particles are created and destroyed during exchanges between otherwise natural particles.
In addition to ordinary matter, the physical universe contains antimatter. Antimatter is matter that has the same gravitational properties as ordinary matter, but has an opposite electric charge as well as opposite nuclear force charges and opposite spin.23 Matter is made of particles; antimatter is made of antiparticles. An antiparticle is a particle with the same mass as the particle concerned but with the opposite ‘charge-like’ properties. When a particle and its antiparticle meet they can annihilate one another releasing energy.24
The Four Forces–Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces
According the physics in general and quantum physics in particular, particles of matter interact with one another by means of four fundamental forces of physics—gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. A fundamental force or fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which matter particles interact with one another by exchanging something. That something is one of the fundamental forces.
Gravity was the first fundamental force to be identified but has yet to be fully understood. Gravity affects all matter particles. The laws of gravity, or the ways in which it affects particles, are well known. In regards to gravity, it is assumed that matter particles interact by exchanging gravitons. As of yet, gravitons have not been seen in particle accelerators. And, as previously mentioned, the laws of gravity as seen in our everyday world are incompatible with the phenomena seen at the quantum level. Thus, gravity is still a mystery in terms of both quantum physics and the standard model of particle physics.
Humans have had some awareness and understanding of electricity and magnetism since the dawn of man. Maxwell discovered the links between electricity and magnetism, unifying them into the single force of electromagnetism. He described their interactions in terms of waves and fields. Planck’s discovery of the quantum was the first step towards understanding how the electromagnetic force is carried by photons. Photons are the quantum particle associated with light waves or more generally electromagnetic radiation.25
The strong nuclear force (also called the strong force and the strong interaction) is the force that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other composite particles.26 The strong nuclear force also holds protons and neutrons together inside the nucleus of the atom. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. Eight different types of gluons have been identified.
The weak nuclear force (also called the weak force and the weak interaction) is the force that causes the beta type of nuclear decay in atoms. In the process, other forms of radiation occur. In other words, the weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactivity. Three different particles have been identified as carrying the weak nuclear force called weakons—the W , the W-, and the Z.
Fermions and Bosons
The standard model divides particles into two groups—matter particles and force-carrying particles. Matter particles are called fermions.27 Force-carrying particles (also called messenger particles) are called bosons.28
There are twelve elementary fermions and their twelve antiparticles. The twelve fermions are divided into six leptons and six quarks. Leptons are fermions such as the electron and the neutrino. Leptons are not influenced by the strong nuclear force.29 Quarks are matter particles that are influenced by the strong nuclear force. Six varieties of quarks have been identified.30 The six leptons are divided into three flavors, and the quarks are divided into three groups. Together the leptons and quarks are grouped into three generations or families.
The four forces are mediated by the force-carrying particles—bosons. The electromagnetic force is carried by photons. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. The weak nuclear force is carried by weakons. It is assumed that gravity is carried by gravitons.
Predictions of the Standard Model
The standard model predicts the existence of another boson called the Higgs boson and of superparticles. As mentioned above, some particles have mass and some do not. For example, photons and weakons have many similarities. They are the messenger particles of the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces. Their greatest difference is that of mass. Weakons have mass and photons do not. The electroweak theory unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces. According to this theory, these two forces were one force when the universe was very young and extreme temperatures and pressures existed. At that time the messenger particles of the two forces were symmetrical. In particle physics, symmetry refers to a characteristic of particles or physical systems. If, when a particle or physical system undergoes certain changes or transformations, other properties or characteristics of the particle or system remain unchanged, symmetry exists.
As the universe expanded and cooled, the symmetry of the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces broke, leaving massless photons and massive weakons. It is hypothesized the symmetry was broken by the Higgs mechanism, a phenomenon of the Higgs field. The Higgs field, proposed by the English physicist Peter Ware Higgs (ne. 1929), is a hypothetical, non-zero vacuum field believed to permeate all of space. The Higgs field is believed to be created or mediated by Higgs bosons, which have not yet been observed. If the Higgs field exists, then space is never empty.
In particle physics, supersymmetry is the theory that for every fermion (matter particle) there exists a corresponding boson (a force carrier) and that for every boson there exists a fermion. The corresponding particle in both cases is called a superparticle. The standard model predicts the existence of fermions, bosons, their superpartners, and their antiparticles. At this time no superparticles have been observed. The lack of evidence for the existence of superpartners may mean that current particle-accelerators are incapable of producing superpartners because of the heavy mass associated with superpartners. It is also possible that the theory of supersymmetry is incorrect.
Hadrons and Conceptons
A hadron is a composite, subatomic particle composed of quarks.31 Since quarks interact by means of the strong nuclear force, so do all hadrons. Hadrons are divided into mesons and baryons. Mesons are composed of an even number of quarks and antiquarks. Mesons are, in turn, divided into two categories based on the types of quarks and antiquarks they contain. Mesons are also called bosonic hadrons, because they convey the strong force. Approximately 140 types of mesons have been observed. Baryons, on the other hand, are made up of three quarks.32 Baryons are matter particles and, so, are called fermionic hadrons. Protons and neutrons are common baryons. Approximately 120 types of baryons have been observed. In case you wondered, there are also antihadrons, the antimatter equivalents of the hadrons. These are divided into antimesons and antibaryons, and so on.
All these particle names are part of the esoteric vocabulary of the quantum physicist. It is not important that you understand these concepts to the same degree that a quantum physicist understands them. You need only keep an open mind to understand the quantum mechanical view of nature33 and a willingness to free yourself of the constraints of everyday visualizable reality and to exercise the imagination freely.34 Quantum physics imparts an understanding of nature in which there is no radical separation between mind and world.35
And, if all these particle names do not appeal to you, I invite you to try on the approach of Richard Bach in Running from Safety:36 Some common positive conceptons are exhilarons, excytons, rhapsodons, jovions. Common negative conceptons include gloomons, tormentons, tribulons, agonons, and miserons. As you may surmise from a deeper understanding of quantum physics, his conceptons are not necessarily less real than those particles named by physicists.
1. Grof, 1985. Pp. 345-346.
2. Hawking, 1988, p. 187.
3. Gamow, 1961, pp. 51-88.
4. Gamow, 1961, pp. 27, McEvoy & Zarate, 1996, p. 5.
5. Gamow, 1961, pp. 27, 42, 48; Goswami, Reed, & Goswami, 1993, p. 141.
6. Gamow, 1961, pp. 27-32, 34, 42, 46-49, 50, 62, 205; Walker, 2000, pp. 15, 16; Wolf, 1988, pp. 18, 95, 295.
7. McEvoy & Zarate, 1996, p. 18.
8. McEvoy and Zarate, 1996.
9. McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, p. 4.
10. McFarlane, 2000.
11. McFarlane, 2000.
12. Ford, 2004, p. 46.
13. Ford, 2004, pp. 184-200; McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, pp. 14, 110-119; Walker, 2000, pp. 48-49.
14. McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, p. 14; Walker, 2000, p. 64.
15. Laszlo, 2004, p. 31; Talbot, 1991, p. 7.
16. Talbot, 1991, p. 33; Zohar, 1990, p. 21.
17. Wolf, 1988, p. 327.
18. Hawking, 1988, p. 186.
19. Goswami, A., Reed, R. E., & Goswami, M., 1993, p. 282.
20. Greene, 1999, p. 420.
21. Bohm, 1980, pp. 162-164.
22. McEvoy, & Zarate, 1996, p.70.
23. Lewis, 2003, p. 144.
24. Greene, 2003, p. 413.
25. Hey & Walters, 1987, p 169.
26. Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 172.
27. Lewis, 2003, p. 144.
28. Greene, 2003, p. 415.
29. Greene, 2003, p. 414.
30. Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 171.
31. Greene, 2003, p. 420.
32. Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 171.
33. Hey & Walters, 1987, p. 169.
34. Nadeau, & Kafatos, 1999, p. 39.
35. Nadeau, & Kafatos, 1999, p. 39.
36. Nadeau, & Kafatos, 1999, p. 39.
37. Bach, 1994, p. 181.
1. Bach, R. (1988). One: A novel. New York, NY: Dell Publishing. Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
2. Ford, K. W. (2004). The quantum world: Quantum physics for everyone. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
3. Gamow, G. (1961). The great physicists from Galileo to Einstein (Biography of physics). New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
4. Goswami, A., Reed, R. E., & Goswami, M. (1993). The self-aware universe: How consciousness creates the material world. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.
5. Greene, B. (1999). The elegant universe: Superstrings, hidden dimensions, and the quest for the ultimate theory. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
6. Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany, NY: State University of New York.
7. Hawking, S. (1988). A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
8. Hey, T., & Walters, P. (1987). The quantum universe. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
9. Laszlo, E. (2004). Science and the akashic field: An integral theory of everything. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.
10. Lewis, L. E., Jr. (2003). Our superstring universe: Strings, branes, extra dimensions and superstring-m theory. New York, NY: iUniverse, Inc.
11. McEvoy, J. P., & Zarate, O. (1996). Introducing Quantum Theory. Lanham, MD: Totem Books.
12. McFarlane, T. J. (June 21, 2000). Quantum physics, depth psychology, and beyond (Rev. ed.). Retrieved February 18, 2005, from http://www.integralscience.org/psyche-physis.html.
13. Nadeau, R., & Kafatos, M. (1999). The non-local universe: The new physics and matters of the mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.
14. Talbot, M. (1991). The holographic universe. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
15. Walker, E. H. (2000). The physics of consciousness: Quantum minds and the meaning of life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
16. Wolf, F. A. (1988). Parallel universes: The search for other worlds. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
17. Zohar, D. (1990). Quantum self. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company. Inc.
About the Author
Gene F. Collins, Jr., Ph.D. has been counseling, consulting, teaching, and writing in the areas of astrology, numerology, tarot, meditation, metaphysics, psychology, psychotherapy, transpersonal psychology, and parapsychology for over 45 years. He is the author of Cosmopsychology – The Psychology of Humans as Spiritual Beings (2009) and Cosmopsychology — A Holistic Approach to Natal Astrology (2011). He has served as a clinical psychologist, mental health counselor, and psychotherapist in a variety of settings including major university, government, and private medical centers, psychiatric hospitals, and mental health centers in both Florida and Illinois. He is a retired licensed psycholoist in Florida and a retired licensed clinical psychologist in Illinois.
- The ‘molecular octopus': A little brother of ‘Schroedingers cat’ (eurekalert.org)
- Quantum Leap: Bits of Light Teleported to Another Place (livescience.com)
- Quantum probes that won’t kill Schrödinger’s cat (newscientist.com)
- Scientists Investigate Quantum Properties of Molecules (azonano.com)
- The Mind vs. Brain Debate (What is Consciousness?) (epages.wordpress.com)
- Temperature Dependence of Protein Folding Deduced from Quantum Transition (nextbigfuture.com)
- Quantum Man – Richard Feynman’s Life in Science (nytimes.com)
- What is the physical significance of commutation between position and momentum operator (wiki.answers.com)
- Quantum Physics 101 – Part I (rlongw.wordpress.com)
- The Beauty of Quantum Mechanics (itsabeautifulearth.com)
- Review: “The Grand Design” by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow (witchoftheatregoing.wordpress.com)
- Quantum Mechanics: Is It Anti-Creationism? (thebibleistheotherside.wordpress.com)
- Nothingness: Why nothing matters (newscientist.com)
- What has Stephen Hawking done for science? (guardian.co.uk)
- The Crisis That Hit Physics 100 Years Ago (wired.com)
- Researchers roll Einstein’s dice: Developing a quantum random number generator (physorg.com)
- The Advent Calendar of Physics: Hydrogen [Uncertain Principles] (scienceblogs.com)
- Quantum theorem shakes foundations (nature.com)
- Paul Dirac: The unsung genius (news.bbc.co.uk)
- Review of “ANTI-GRAVITY and ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FLIGHT” (lantonov.wordpress.com)
- Science and God (gracieackerman.wordpress.com)
- Sir Isaac Newton Goes On-Line (lewrockwell.com)
- Sir Isaac Newton’s own annotated Principia Mathematica goes online (downes.ca)
Virginia Beach, Va. – Belief in psychic ability and the experience of psychic phenomena are very much a part of the daily lives of hundreds of millions of people. Atlantic University’s (AU) first-ever conference Parapsychology and Consciousness, October 14-16, illuminates the less-known, but vitally important, scientific side of these occurrences. Invited speakers include Julie Beischel, PhD; Edwin C. May, PhD; Roger Nelson, PhD; and Dean Radin, PhD.
An early registration discount is available for those who sign up before August 15.
There is a significant amount of serious interest among scientists and scholars in telepathy, psychokinesis, apparitions and haunting, out-of-body and near-death experiences, mediumship, precognition, remote viewing, and a host of other phenomena. For over a century, and sometimes at a great cost to their careers, many scientists and scholars have paid close attention to the testimony of expierencers. Psychologists and physicists, anthropologists and engineers, among others, have crafted rigorous experiments, conducted insightful studies, developed useful theories, and published their work in scholarly and scientific articles, both within the fields of parapsychology and consciousness and in mainstream books and journals.
Many of the best minds in parapsychology and consciousness, many of whom are on the forefront of research, are coming together for this unique event. Some study the relationship of psychic experiences to psychological well-being, while others focus on the intersection of these phenomena with modern physics. They are universally focused on the underpinnings of psychic functioning and what these phenomena say about interconnectedness, entanglement, and the meaning of life—and getting an unbiased understanding of this out to those who need it most. True scientific progress has been made in parapsychology, yet so much more still needs to be done. Join us in envisioning the future.
Julie Beischel, PhD,
is Director of Research at the Windbridge Institute for Applied Research in Human Potential, full member of the Parapsychological Association and the Society for Scientific Exploration, and serves on the scientific advisory boards of the Rhine Research Center and Forever Family Institution.
Edwin C. May, PhD,
is Founding Director of Laboratories for Fundamental Research. In 1976, he joined the ongoing U.S. government-sponsored psi program at SRI and became that program’s director in 1985.
Roger Nelson, PhD,
is an experimental psychologist. At Princeton University he coordinated research at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) lab until he retired in 2002. He also founded and continues to direct the Global Consciousness Project.
Dean Radin, PhD,
is Senior Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) and adjunct faculty in the Department of Psychology at Sonoma State University. He is author or coauthor of over 200 technical and popular articles, a dozen book chapters, and several books including the bestselling The Conscious Universe and Entangled Minds.
Other speakers include
Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD; Loyd Auerbach, MS; Stephen Braude, PhD; James Carpenter, PhD; David McMillin, MA; Ginette Nachman, MD, PhD; John Palmer, PhD; Frank Pasciuti, PhD; Henry Reed, PhD; Doug Richards, PhD; Christine Simmonds-Moore, PhD; Robert Van de Castle, PhD; and Nancy L. Zingrone, PhD.
Open to all, Parapsychology and Consciousness is scheduled for October 14-16, 2011, at Edgar Cayce’s A.R.E., 215 67th Street, Virginia Beach, VA, 23451. Conference admission is just $395 ($375 for students with a valid ID). Call 800-428-1512 or visit AtlanticUniv.edu/parapsychologyconference for information or to register.
The Spring 2012 semester at AU is January 16-April 23. Registration is open September 5-November 15, 2011.
Atlantic University (AU) is a Distance Education and Training Council (DETC)-accredited, graduate-level institution offering a Master of Arts Degree in Transpersonal Studies. The emphasis in transpersonal studies is on the fundamental oneness of all life, the notion that our essential nature as human beings is spiritual, and that learning must enrich and deepen our relationships to ourselves, to our families and communities, and to the global community. AU also offers continuing education courses for working professionals, including courses certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC); certificates in personal growth designed to augment various professional career paths; residential workshops, typically held in Virginia Beach, Va.; and online eGroups that are not offered for academic credit but allow people to study a topic of interest with an expert “mentor” (for more information visit EdgarCayce.org/egroups). Distinguished as the first university founded in Virginia Beach, AU’s faculty is composed of highly acclaimed and qualified professionals including well-known authors and national lecturers. Founded by spiritual philosopher and holistic healing pioneer Edgar Cayce in 1930, AU maintains an affiliation with Edgar Cayce’s Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.). For more information, visit AtlanticUniv.edu.