The Real Alternative


Closer To Reality – The “Inspired” Bible

Adam and Eve. Illustration from the first Russ...

Adam and Eve. Illustration from the first Russian engraved Bible. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Many knowledgeable people, those true believers, acknowledge that theoretically, on paper at least, the concept that the authorized Bible being the inspired word of God Almighty has merit, even if God Almighty Himself is difficult to pin down. Some Doubting Thomas’s however say that this concept is pure bovine fertilizer for a whole host of reasons, not least of which are that the Bible is full of logical contradictions. What follows arises out of a debate I had with an Accidental Metaphysician and true believer which I’ve edited for, hopefully, sake of clarity.

 The “Inspired” Bible 1

If the Bible is the absolutely inspired word of God, then God did an absolutely lousy job of proofreading His Magnum Opus. The Bible (and related discards) reads like it was cobbled together by dozens of humans over a lengthy period of time, with lots of copying and plagiarism and alterations and interpretations afoot, with no particular obvious rhyme or reason why some bits and pieces of text were given the stamp of approval (the authorized Bible) and some bits and pieces were excluded. The Bible reads like the first draft of an early attempt at an anthology of interconnected science fantasy stories (complete with unicorns) that doesn’t quite hang together as a cohesive whole. For example, you get at least three different figures on exactly how many of God’s ‘chosen people’ were forced or sent into exile into Babylon.

The “Inspired” Bible 2

Writers and producers of science fiction, science fantasy and dark fantasy (horror) go to all sorts of weird and wonderful lengths to draw the reader (or the viewer) into their worldview. So too I suspect with the numerous human authors of the Bible. I mean Jonah and the ‘whale’ is marvelous dramatic plotting and a sort of “Jaws” story; we all love a good disaster film or story and thus the Noah’s Ark tale or the nuking of Sodom and Gomorrah fits that bill; ditto stories about the underdog coming out on top and the Biblical “High Noon” is your David versus Goliath fable. We also like war stories and so we have an obligatory Battle of Jericho. Another favorite is survival against all the odds and so we have the great unwashed facing off against the wilderness for 40 years. Now take the tale of Jesus missing from his tomb. That too is a marvelous supernatural plotting as were the sightings of his ‘ghost’. I mean just relating a revelation of finding a stone cold rotting corpse isn’t anywhere near as interesting.

English: By Rembrandt.

Rembrandt. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The “Inspired” Bible 3

Why is it logical – logic being one of the favorite themes of true believers – to accept holus bolus the bona-fides of an alleged non-fiction text (the Bible) wherein the major players and major events cannot be independently verified? For example, there’s not one single shred of independent evidence that anything that’s related in Exodus ever happened, which is a super anomaly since there should be loads and loads of it. So, it’s not overly logical to accept the events in Exodus at face value, without question, holus bolus. Speaking of logic, logic suggests that Eve must have been a man since ‘she’ derived 100% of ‘her’ genetic material from Adam. In a similar fashion, Jesus must have been a woman since ‘he’ got ‘his’ genetic material from a woman. Logic also suggests that Jonah’s adventure would have been better placed as one of Grimm’s fairy tales! I mean you can’t seriously believe Jonah’s whale-of-a-tale actually happened, not and maintain your logical dignity. Now, in conclusion, can you really name me one Biblical tall tale that features at least of the major players in the Biblical drama, that has been independently verified by Mid and Near East historical scholars and/or professional archaeologists to which there is no room or reason for debate in much the same way as there is no wriggle room about Antony and Cleopatra or the exploits of Alexander-the-Great?

The “Inspired” Bible 4

Most events and most people leave relatively little or no trace at all. But here we’re talking here about the major players and major events in the most influential ‘non-fiction’ book of all time. Biblical events aren’t just any old events. Biblical characters aren’t just any old characters. The Bible raises the bar of expectations. Billions of people past and present believe that the Bible is actual history with actual characters. They deserve to have some actual evidence. If these Biblical characters actually existed, their remains, their grave-sites, would be actual evidence. Alas, such evidence, even dry and dusty bones, are all conspicuous by their absence.

As to those grave-sites, we are talking about the major players in the most famous and best read and best-selling ‘non-fiction’ book of all time and yet no one can tell me where even one of them (like Methuselah) has been laid to rest! Of course I shouldn’t pick on true believers since neither they nor anybody else can tell me either.

However, regarding the final resting place of Moses, look up Deuteronomy 34:6. You get some hardcore geography. Having done that, and having consulted a map, how about making like Indiana Jones, find the site, dig him up, and prove to the world once and for all that Moses wasn’t just a figment of Biblical mythology.

English: Bible of Lilienfeld

Bible of Lilienfeld (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The “Inspired” Bible 5

Regarding the Biblical Ages of Man:

“The days of our years are threescore years and ten” – Psalm 90:10.

“His days shall be an hundred and twenty years” – Genesis 6:3.


The “Inspired” Bible 6

Believers can quote the Bible as much as they like but for whatever statements quoted like the alleged resurrection of Jesus*, I’d like some 100% independent verification – some other source(s) material. As that Gershwin song suggested, just because the Bible says so doesn’t mean its historical fact. Where is the independent evidence for the existence of Jesus? Where is the independent (Egyptian or archaeological) evidence that the Exodus ever happened? Can you show me the grave-sites of Adam, Eve, Cain, Abel, Seth, Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jonah, Joshua, Solomon, David, Ezekiel, Daniel, Goliath, Methuselah, Joseph and Mary, or for that matter any other character in the Bible? Has the grave-site of Jesus himself been identified and independently verified by ancient historians and archaeologists? True, some historical Biblical figures existed, but that’s to be expected since the Bible was written by the locals who would obviously incorporate local flavor into their tall tales. However, and for similar reasons, you’ll get real historical figures mentioned in historical novels like “Gone with the Wind”. That doesn’t make GWTW an historical and believable document.

*Oh, by the way, there is no absolute historical fact about the resurrection since not all scholars or historians agree that there ever was such a person who existed to in fact be resurrected.

English: Bible, Ilov, 1619, artist Ghazar Babe...

Bible, Ilov, 1619, artist Ghazar Baberdts’i, Genesis: Creation, Adam and Eve, Noah’s Ark (Erevan, Matenadaran, MS 351) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The “Inspired” Bible 7

It is not surprising that some of the minor players in the Bible actually existed. I call the Bible “Historical Fiction” not just “Fiction”. After all, the Bible was penned by the locals who lived in the area and would have been aware of the reality of various figures who were incorporated into their tall tales. It’s exactly the same as you’ll find real historical characters in “Gone with the Wind” or in the twin novels “The Winds of War” and “War and Remembrance”. However, those novels are not exactly the sources one would go to for an overall historical account of the American Civil War or the lead-up to and history of World War II.

Anyway, I’m pleased for true believers that think the Bible is the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. On the other hand, knowing that they tend to be on a quest to be closer to the theological truth, they might like to also consider reading “The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible” (1991) by classical historian Robin Lane Fox and/or “Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction” (2009) by classical scholar and anthropologist Eric H. Cline.

IMHO it’s all just myths and fairy tales for grown-ups. True believers know, and I know, that had they been born in a different time into a different culture, say Ancient Egypt, they’d be spouting with total conviction about the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth about the reality of Isis, Horus and Osiris.

The “Inspired” Bible 8

True believers say there are lots of independent (i.e. – archaeological?) verifications for alleged Biblical truths. There is historical integrity within the Bible that has been confirmed or documented, or so they would allege. I wish they would just name one such verification involving a major Biblical character and a major supernaturally-themed Biblical event like Jonah and the ‘whale’ and I’ll be happy to dance around that circle with them. I refer again to those books by Robin Lane Fox and Eric H. Cline.

Česky: Stvoření Evy z Bible Václava IV.

Česky: Stvoření Evy z Bible Václava IV. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The “Inspired” Bible: Cain’s Wife 1

One Biblical anomaly is where did Cain get his wife from? The standard answer is that Adam had “other sons and daughters” quite apart from Cain, Abel and Seth. There may have been inbreeding and incest, but when you gotta breed you gotta breed. Still, I’m not convinced.

“Cain knew his wife” – Genesis 4:17 – which precedes…

“Adam having other sons and daughters” – Genesis 5:4.

We note that Adam begat Seth at the age of 130 – Genesis 5:3 – and post Seth he lived another 800 years (dying at 930 years) and had other sons and daughters – Genesis 5:4. So all those unnamed sons and daughters were post-Seth and Seth was way post-Cain.

So again, where did Cain get his wife from?

The “Inspired” Bible: Cain’s Wife 2

Regarding Cain’s wife, as just one example, when it comes to the Bible, the left hand (Genesis 4:17) most certainly did not know what the right hand (Genesis 5:4) was doing. In general, readers of Biblical events just get multi-variations on multi-theological themes. So when it come to the Bible you can just about ‘prove’ or theologically back up or even ‘disprove’ any claim you wish to make or refute. But since you’re pontificating over an overall work of historical fiction, I’m not always sure what the overriding point is in doing so. In any event, I’m not convinced until those true believers dish up some sort of independent historical or archaeological evidence that the Bible is historical fact and not historical fiction. The burden of proof is always on those who say something is so, yet proof of major Biblical events by the major Biblical players is always conspicuous by its absence.

The “Inspired” Bible: Cain’s Wife 3

Unless true believers can provide me with some independent verification that Cain even existed, far less where his wife came from, I’ll just reword my previous comments and say it’s all mythological poppycock. It has as much reality as that of Athena being hatched fully grown from the head of Zeus, or Helen of Troy being the offspring of Zeus mating with a mortal woman by first turning himself into a swan and hence Helen being hatched from out of the resulting egg. The Ancient Greek myths zoomed in and out too but that don’t make them the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. You’re happy with blind faith. I want evidence, something you are unable to supply. Now, where is Cain (and his wife) buried? Surely if they existed their dry and dusty bones must be somewhere. Where?

The Destruction Of Sodom And Gomorrah, a paint...

The Destruction Of Sodom And Gomorrah, a painting by John Martin (painter), died 1854, thus 100 years. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The “Inspired” Bible: Job

Okay, here’s a little problem. I don’t believe Job actually existed! How do true believers like the Accidental metaphysician actually know Job existed? How do they know that all of the events as related in Job actually happened? They weren’t there. They can’t verify one single word of Job – the person or the Book. They are relying on a person or persons who they know absolutely nothing about relating the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Perhaps these authors of questionable bona-fides just made all of this up in order to present an interesting story. Has any independent Biblical historian verified all of this? Is there any archaeological conformation of any of this rather tall tale? Can anyone point out the actual location of the final resting place of this alleged Biblical character?

The Accidental Metaphysician quotes Job several times. How does he know for absolute certain that these Biblical quotes attributed to Job are accurate? How does he know the English translation is accurate? Who was the Johnny-on-the-spot writing this down many thousands of years ago? Does anyone know who he (she) was? Was this a case of someone who told someone who told someone who told someone?

According to the “HarperCollins Bible Dictionary” (Paul J. Achtemeier, General Editor), the entry for “Job, the Book of” states “Date, place, and identity of authorship are debated.” That does auger well for the accuracy of the Biblical text.

In conclusion, how does anyone know for absolute certain that this Biblical event actually happened in the way and manner described? I say it’s all a work of pure fiction even though I can no more prove that than true believers can prove the contrary. It’s all about faith, not about evidence. It’s not logical to trump faith over actual hardcore evidence. My hardcore evidence backing my point of view is that there is no hardcore evidence!

Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The “Inspired” Bible: Moses

There’s no independent evidence that Moses ever existed, so there’s no independent evidence that Moses wrote anything. In any event, can true believers tell me where Moses was laid to rest, being such a major player in Biblical terms and all? So here’s Moses, leader of a rag-tag band of 200,000 souls wandering throughout the wilderness – the great unwashed of the times – who stayed with them and guided them through thick-and-thin for 40 years. When Moses dies, just before his motley crowd were to leave the wilderness and enter the Promised Land, did they just threw his body into some shallow and unmarked pit or maybe left his bodily corpse to the local buzzards? [Many of us like to put out food for the wild birds but that’s ridiculous.] That’s not a heck of a lot of gratitude the multitudes showed their fearless leader, old man Moses, did they now?

Actually as noted above, we know from Deuteronomy 34:6 the rough geographical location where Moses was laid to rest. It’s just a matter of some wannabe Indiana Jones finding the site and digging Moses up and thus proving once and for all that Moses actually existed.

Still, I find it amazing that my Accidental Metaphysician spends hours and hours debating historical events, like Cain’s wife and Job and Moses that more likely as not have no actual verified historical reality. He keeps going on and on and on about these Biblical events as if they were carved in stone and available as independent evidence for all to see. They’re not. As an accurate historical text, the Bible has just as much credibility as “Gone with the Wind”, “The Caine Mutiny”, “Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn” or “The Last of the Mohicans”. He is however presenting all of this Biblical stuff as though it was all verified historical fact, and that’s not the case, so IMHO he is being more than just slightly dishonest with his reading audience!

About the Author

John Prytz Science librarian; retired. 

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The History of Tattoos

by Becky McClure

The word, Tattoo, comes from the Polynesian word, “tatao” which means “to tap” or “to mark something.”Captain James Cook introduced this word to the English during his voyage around the world in 1769. Captain Cook and his crew of the ship, The Endeavour, were welcomed with open arms by the friendly and uninhibited Tahitians (yeah, that means many of them were naked.) Since the weather was very warm on the island, clothing was optional.

The Tahitians tried to look their best by decorating their bodies. But the fact of the matter was the application of tattoos, which was painful. It was done by dipping a sharp-pointed comb into lampblack and then hammering it into the skin. Nonetheless, everybody did it.

A woman showing images tattooed or painted on ...

A woman showing images tattooed or painted on her upper body, 1907. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

As word of tattooing in Tahiti and other Polynesian islands spread, the European sailors began to get tattooed themselves. This probably illustrated why tattoos were looked upon with such a lack of credibility in the early days and were considered as a kind of thing suitable for drunkards, sailors and criminals.

Modern archeology has uncovered the practice of tattoos in many ancient cultures all over the world.

In 1992, in the Alps between the border of Austria and Italy, a perfectly preserved body of a man was found. He was estimated to have lived 5,000 years ago! And he had 58 tattoos all over his body.

Mummies from the ancient Egyptians had tattoos.

Clay figurines found in Japan dated 3,000 years ago were engraved with tattoo marks.

The ancient Greeks and Romans used tattoos to identify slaves and criminals.

But tattooing has only become acceptable in the mainstream society recently. Tattoo shops and parlors were nothing more than wretched hives of scum and villainy, located in the seediest parts of most towns have undergone significant changes.

English: Tattos of Cross on Croatian women in ...

English: Tattos of Cross on Croatian women in Bosnia and Herzegovina were defence from Ottoman Turks Hrvatski: Tetovaže križa i ostalih kršćanskih simbola na hrvatskim ženama u Bosni i Hercegovini bile su obrana od Osmanlija. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Tattooing has really become popular with sports athletes. No one can forget the now-retired flamboyant NBA forward, Dennis Rodman, whose body was a tattooing canvas. A more current example is Allen Iverson of the Philly 76’ers. The tattooing trend is getting really popular in college basketball. And the trickle-down effect is appearing on high school athletes. Some old-fashion coaches forbidden any display of tattoos which meant some basketball players has to play with a t-shirt under their game jersey. Football fans can’t miss the barbed wire tattoos on the well-developed arms of football players.

The popular show, “Miami Ink,” from TLC is a reality-based show. The show’s popularity demonstrates just how mainstream the art of body art or “inking” has become. And it gives the viewers a look into the skill and history of both the artists and their customers.

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Liminal and Liminoid

English: Rock concert at The Hexagon The band ...

Rock concert at The Hexagon The band are Jethro Tull, performing an acoustic number. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Expert from my blog… read more here

Browsing through my library, I recently found some interesting material on the idea of liminality. You’d think I’d know all about this concept; it’s right up my alley. But as things go, I’ve only made note of it until now.

Some quick research on Wiki produced these two links. I highly recommend them to anyone interested in religion and the related idea of numinosity. Of particular interest is the distinction anthropologist Victor Turner makes between the liminal and the liminoid. The one is structured and expected by society, and more like work (e.g. going to Church); the other is free and playful (e.g. going to a rock concert). But both apparently have similar effects. They transport you somewhere out of the ordinary.

This second link is an interview with Talal Asad. I was pleasantly surprised to discover his views on postmodernism and religion. I’ve been thinking about this for a long time. And it’s always great to find an “established” thinker who’s saying things that you’ve already thought about. It gives you a sense of reinforcement and encouragement. After all, a single innovative thinker is often ignored or marginalized (as has been my experience). More than one, however, and people begin to take notice.

Apart from my personal story, I really believe that humanity would benefit from using all of the intellectual tools we have at our disposal… especially with regard to religion and society.


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RELIGION/ADAPTATION: God and the Survival of the Human Species

Creation of the Sun and Moon by Michelangelo, ...

Creation of the Sun and Moon by Michelangelo, face detail of God. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

By Robert DePaolo

A Deistic Conflict

Answering the question of whether God actually exists has always been fraught with complications. Part of the problem lies in the fact that ostensible interactions of God – regardless of the particular faith – have been few and far between. Indeed it is hard to argue with the fact that most of the body of religious doctrine has been purveyed by man. On Sinai only The Ten Commandments were issued in person while the various laws in Deuteronomy seem to have been written by various authors, including  Moses, Joshua and a mysterious set of writers often referred to by biblical scholars as The Yahwist, The Elohist, the Deuteronomist and the Priestly Source.  Thus while a large part of religion is based on conversations of one sort or another between a god and a chosen human being it is the latter’s account that is ultimately used as final purveyor of doctrine.

None of this is necessarily denied by even ardent believers. All Christian scholars know that many of the main tenets of the old and New Testaments  considered divinely conveyed in modern times were in fact decided by various councils during the Middle Ages – including the decision to consider Jesus a God rather than a higher-order profit in the mold of Moses, Isiah or Elijah. The premise behind such decisions was at least derived in part from the teachings of Christ so one could infer the councils were simply relying on an original source. After all he said ‘I am the Way’ in John 14:6. On the other hand, in Luke 18:19 he also said, ‘Why do you call me good when that word applies only to God?’ In that instance Jesus was clearly separating himself from the one true God of the Jews, who after all, viewed themselves as monotheists.

Atheists feed off such inconsistencies, arguing, as Draper (1998) did that since much of religious doctrine is man-made, the idea of a God has little to do with the actual existence of a deity. Some, such as Christopher Hitchens (2007) have argued that the world would be a better place if not for a belief in God, this opinion apparently based on a history of religiously-influenced wars and political tyrannies.

In this opinion that is a rather vacuous argument, not only because it ignores the vast number of altruistic acts that have been conducted in the name of religion but also because most moral concepts regarding peace, adhere to law, fairness, and humaneness adopted by the western world have been heavily influenced by religious mores, particularly those inherent in Judao-Christianity.  Echos of old and new testament laws run throughout the English and American Constitutions…for example the reference in Leviticus 24:19 to an eye for an eye runs parallel to the 8th Amendment in the American Constitution on cruel and unusual punishment. Obviously the same parallels exist between modern law and biblical tenets regarding prohibitions against theft, murder and slander.

But an even stronger argument against atheistic thought can be presented by simply considering the history of religion and its historically adaptive value to our species.

In the Beginning

The first modern humans were nomads (Marlowe 2005). Until roughly 8,000 years ago climatic conditions, lack of knowledge, the lack of availability of certain grains (which had to evolve into more resilient form themselves before being arable) ruled out the possibility of agricultural settlements. During that time man wandered the earth, settling into temporary make-shift homes, periodically following herds. Permanence, and all the cognitive and emotional by-products and potentials of that were yet impossible. The nomadic human tribes had limited capacity to carry objects in their travels, thus left most of their tools behind. In effect they were forced to re-make them, which led to a great deal of behavioral redundancy. That left little time to contemplate possibilities, anxieties, and meaning in general despite their having enough cortical brain mass to do so.  As Bronowski (1973) has pointed out, nomadic life allowed little in the way of existential concerns.

Since value is based on necessity, material possessions were not cherished in the nomadic world. Since travel was essential to survival those who, for one reason or other could not press on were left to die – and likely did so without protest. Life for these groups was moment to moment and confined to the immediacy of their circumstances and needs.

Still, the early humans worshipped gods (Narr 2008). The reasons why were probably myriad. First and foremost was probably the size and construction of their brains – which had reached 1500 centimeters. A brain like that, with delineated speech centers, and a capacity to categorize, memorize and communicate socially, would have attributed events to causes and sources (King, 2007), (Gould, 2007) Since large brains tend to correlate with intense social concerns, these attributors would have caste the causes and sources in at least quasi-personal forms – thus the personification of God.

At the root of what might be called a cognitive-God function are the needs to control, reduce uncertainty and press onward.  While many social scientists have discussed the advantage of evolutionary human brain expansion with respect to increased language capacities, cognitive abilities, tool making, art and creativity in general they miss one very salient disadvantage of having a large brain. While a brain with billions of inter-neuronal connections provides a capacity to think and communicate it also creates a greater potential for ‘noise,’ existential uncertainty and consequently a greater need for ongoing resolution. The large brains bestowed on mankind by nature (and God, if you will) thus set in motion the very need for a God-concept. This process likely began with climatic change during the tail end of the Pleistocene (glaciation) era when resources dried up, travel became both more possible but also more treacherous during migrations across frozen tundra.

A small-brained creature would not contemplate such duress, merely experience it in the moment. Its fate would be either to adapt or die. There would be neither any possibility nor any point in hoping, fretting, worrying about ‘what if.’ Conversely, an animal with a brain of 1500 or so centimeters would. Since uncertainty-fostered duress can lead to avoidance behaviors, some sort of endurance-enhancing cognitive capacity would have had to kick in to rein in all that angst. In that time period the adaptive value of God might have been to sustain human motivation through supra-environmental (i.e. spiritual) cognitions and emotions, so that persistence would increase the likelihood of finding food, water and climatic support. In the aftermath of such discovery, the need of a large brain for closure might lead the nomads to thank/appease an overseer to reinforce his investment in the tribe and express gratitude for his or her concern for their well-being.

The combination of attributional and personifying tendencies probably forced a belief in God for the first humans. In that instance religion was not a symbolic, spiritual mindset but a necessary, adaptive form of cognition facilitating persistence and thus aiding in survival. It was conceivably both necessary and inevitable.

Genesis II.

A second God-adaptation possibly arose with the advent of agricultural societies. When people are able to renew a supply of plant foods without necessarily understanding the biology behind the process, they will perhaps view their good fortune as a function of some sort of outside control. That in turn will lead to gratitude and a need to pay homage to the purveyor of this good fortune. Thus the transition from a nomadic to agricultural/urban life style did not require a cognitive/religious transformation. The settlers hoped for crops to grow, had to wait for seasonal and climatically favorable circumstances and when things turned out well they acknowledged the agent responsible and continued to express their gratitude in the hope that the bounty would continue. (Wilkins 2000). Both nomadic and early agricultural religious practices were adaptive because they facilitated persistence and provided uncertainty reduction.

The continued development and expansion of agriculture societies obviously led to profound social changes, including a more sedentary life style and greater social permanence.  Family members could live together for longer periods of time and all inhabitants had more down time to ponder existential questions. A brain previously driven by movement, faced with moment to moment concerns about geography. resources and destinations was now able to look beyond immediate experience. A distinction between concrete experience and ‘meaning’ was drawn. Ideas on the value and importance of life and the trauma of death became more common and more vivid (Erlich 2000), (Gould, McGarr et. al 2007). A greater capacity for suffering was a consequence of that as the inherent tough-mindedness of the nomad morphed into the more tender and sensitive mindset of the permanent settlers.  To cope with internally-driven angst, to persist despite the specter of death, failure, and the potential loss of new-found prosperity required a continued reliance on the cognition/religion paradigm.

So, once again, God came to the rescue, insulating humans against the existential suffering and enabling mankind to adapt to still newer social and environmental circumstances.

Genesis III

Religious evolution did not end there, for another profound change occurred in human society. While agriculture provided stability and control, not all habitable places on earth were equally arable. Some places lacked water resources, others were too cold or mountainous, still others had agricultural potential but residents lacked knowledge of farming techniques. Yet tribal outsiders traveled about – after all, many were still entrenched in the nomadic life style. They were aware of the existence of milk and honey settlements and wanted in on that. As a result another ironic byproduct of societal advancement occurred in the form of tribal invasion. War became all the rage.

The genes of a primate are very parochial. Somehow, in some way these microscopic bio-conglomerates influence behavior in such a way as to serve the local gene pool. Family ties tend to promote loyalty while the presence of strangers tends to invoke hostility. Up the point of tribal invasions, family ties were not only strong but historically crucial. As evidenced in the Old Testament people in the Middle East/North African settlements were well aware of and arguably obsessed with lineage. One reason for this concern with lineage was to prevent contamination of the local gene pool by outsiders. Religious thought favored that mindset, as seen in the long reference list of progenitors and offspring in Genesis. That cognitive-religious mindset was adaptive because it reinforced altruism within the ranks and consequently the survival of all members of the tribal family. That model persisted down through the epochs depicted in the Bible. Indeed without that, Jesus of Nazareth (being ostensibly from the line of David and born by mandate in David’s town of Bethlehem) could not have risen in the ranks.

Yet even extended families are small in number and insufficient to ward off hordes of invaders. A conflict arose. Consanguine groups had to decide between keeping the family intact at the risk of being overrun by vast armies or increasing their numbers and territorial defensive capabilities by assimilating para-familial members into their community. The solution was discovered at some cost. It was that strangers somehow had to be incorporated and welcomed into an extra-familial socio-political structure

In order to achieve these first forays into social integration required nothing less than a socio-political miracle. For this to occur, the behavioral impetus arising from the most basic elements of life  – the genes – had to be overridden. In effect, nurture had to over-take nature. It was not an easy task, which is why a new religious adaptation was needed and why it did occur.

The newest cognitive/religious adaptation was found in the idea of integration and it was exemplified by Judao-Christian, Buddhist and other religious models.  The God of Abraham accepted Ishmael as future leader of a great nation, despite his biological mother (Hagar) being an Egyptian maid. Moses began as an Egyptian prince before ultimately leading the Hebrews. David united the conflicted twelve tribes to form the state of Israel. The story of the Good Samaritan rose above parochial protest. Jesus reached out to the Roman centurion to heal his servant, and included tax collectors and other outsiders into a more compassionate world view, while Buddha traveled about, espousing not just tribal integration but unity among all life forms. All these integrative ideas heralded at different times, in different places the advent of a new model. It was a credo that met with considerable resistance – and still does, but, just as the industrial growth of the western nations (most notably the U.S.A.) occurred through assimilation of immigrant foreigners, so were the urban settlements in the Middle East ultimately sustained in ancient times. In fact the human race was able to adapt as a result of a religiously-driven idea of overriding both genetic and tribal differences.

Protection from invasion was not the only reason for integrative thought but it conceivably originated in the need to survive against enemy attack and it worked.  In that context, God evolved from a parochial figure to one more concerned with the family of man. He taught us, through the prism of human cognition how to get along when it was absolutely necessary to do so.

Throughout history the cognitive and behavioral byproducts of belief in God have enabled us to adapt, persist and deal with changing pressures, threats and trends. In one sense that would seem to render God flexible, adaptable and perhaps even anthropocentrically utilitarian. And of course a belief in God has led to violent, destructive behavior in the course of time. Still, the overall effect of religion has kept Homo sapiens alive and well through thick and thin, in times when the genes, habits and instincts of mankind would not have been nearly enough – and indeed could have led to our downfall. As to the question of God’s existence: it is hard to resolve such a question in our post-Cartesian, empirically-tinged world. Perhaps a better question has to do with God’s legitimacy. In that context, even if religious belief is not genetically hardwired into the human brain as Hamer (2005) suggested, one could argue that since religion has been an inevitable byproduct of human neurology and human need and since it has enabled our species to persist, adapt and survive, it is virtually built into human experience and perhaps into mind as well. Like our penchant for analyzing nature through the medium of mathematics it seems very much within us – just as the prophets insisted.


Cauvin, C. Watkins T. The Birth of the Gods and the Origin of Agriculture. Cambridge University Press

Draper, P. (1998) Evolution and the Problem of Evil. In Philosophy of Religion. Ed. Louis Pojman. Wadsworth Publishing. P. 200

Erlich, P. (2000) Human Nature,Genes, Culture and the Human Prospect. Washington, DC Island Press

Gould, S.J. McGarr, P. Steven, P, Russell, R (2007) Challenges to Neo-Darwinism and its Meaning for a Revised View of Human Consciousness. W.W.Norton & Co.

Hamer, D. (2005) The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into our Genes. Anchor Books

Hitchens, C. (2007) God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. Twelve/Hachette Book Group, USA Warner Books

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Jesus reference re:  Why do you call me good? In Luke 18:19

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Lieberman, P. (1984) The Biology and Evolution of Language. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Marlowe, F.W. (2005) Hunter-Gatherers and Human Evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News and Reviews. 14 (2) 54-67

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About the Author

Robert DePaolo, MS Clinical Psychology, former Professor of Psychology NH University System, author of five books and many articles on science, religion, politics, psychology and music.

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Hindus urge Netherlands to ban “Dutch Black Pete”

English: The helper of Sinterklaas. Nederlands...

The helper of Sinterklaas. Nederlands: De helper van Sinterklaas. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Hindus want “Dutch Black Pete” to go.

Rajan Zed, in a statement in Nevada (USA) today, said that it was time for this negative, offensive, racist and discriminatory caricature to vanish from annual traditional festivities in cities and towns throughout the Netherlands in November-December.

Zed, who is President of Universal Society of Hinduism, argued that “Dutch Black Pete” might be a popular Dutch tradition but it appeared to be a racist throwback to the slavery era.

Rajan Zed further said that it was absolutely baffling that racist stereotypes like “Dutch Black Pete” continued to exist in 21st century world, which should have been extinct many decades ago. Was not Netherlands famous for promoting equality? Zed asked.

Portrait of Sinterklaas and Zwarte Piet.

Portrait of Sinterklaas and Zwarte Piet. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Zed urged His Majesty King Willem-Alexander and Prime Minister Mark Rutte of the Netherlands to urgently intervene to put an end to the character of “Dutch Black Pete”. Country of Rembrandt and Van Gogh which has a long history of social tolerance and which hosts International Court of Justice should not be in the business of negative stereotyping.

Zed suggested His Holiness Pope Francis to also come out with a strong statement against “Dutch Black Pete” tradition as religions were supposed to speak against racism.

A white Dutch woman as Zwarte Piet, Sinterklaa...

A white Dutch woman as Zwarte Piet, Sinterklaas’ helper. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Zed urged Netherlands to also make efforts to end frequently complained workplace discrimination.

Black Pete (Zwarte Piet) is a traditional jolly sidekick to Dutch Saint Nicholas or Sinterklaas (Dutch version of Santa Claus); dressed in a gaudy medieval costume with blackened face, thick red lips, earrings and curly Afro wig; often showed as servile, clumsy and dumb; in the annual parades and festivities in Amsterdam and other cities/towns of Netherlands. It first appeared in an 1850 book by Jan Schenkman.

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The Science of Nudity: The Skinny on Showing Skin

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The Science of Nudity: The Skinny on Showing Skin – as of February 1st, 2013, public nudity is illegal in San Francisco.…

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English: comparison of Neanderthal and Modern ...

Comparison of Neanderthal and Modern human skulls from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History by hairymuseummatt via Wikipedia and Flickr

By Rabbi Allen S. Maller

Many anthropologists believe that modern humans ancestors directly or indirectly killed off   Neanderthal and Denisovan populations as they moved into Neanderthal and Denisovan territory. A new study of the issue argues that it’s more likely that Neanderthals and Denisovans were assimilated into the human gene pool thirty to forty thousand years ago during the Upper Pleistocene era as cultural and climatic forces brought the two groups together, according to Arizona State University Professor C. Michael Barton.

Recent sequencing of ancient Neanderthal DNA indicates that Neanderthal genes make up from 1 to 4 percent of the genome of modern populations—especially those of European descent.  Denisovans genes (Denisovans are a sister species to Neanderthals, who were recently found in central and eastern Asia).were found to make up 2 to 6 percent of human genes in southeast Asia. South of the Sahara Africans show no signs of Neanderthal genes.

The researchers used archaeological data to track cultural and socio-ecological changes in behavior in Western Eurasia during the past 120,000 years. As Neanderthals and early humans land-use patterns shifted during the last ice age, computer modeling showed that the two populations began to interact and mate, leading to the “extinction” of one of the groups due to hybridization, a well-recognized phenomenon in conservation biology. Neanderthals were limited to western Asia and Europe, while Denisovans, a sister species to Neanderthals, were recently found in central and eastern Asia. Usually it is the smaller population that becomes “extinct”  but succeeding hybrid populations still carry some genes from the regional group that disappeared, according to the researchers.

According to Barton, “There is a perception that biological evolution determines culture during the Pleistocene era and that cultural influences only predominate afterwards. The reality is that the two forces have been working together and they were as important 50,000 years ago as they are today. Other than the fact that they disappeared, there is no evidence that Neanderthals were any less fit as hunter-gatherers of the late Pleistocene than any other human ancestor living at that time. It looks like they were as capable as anyone else,”

So why did they assimilate into us rather than us into them? Humans might have had the advantage of a higher birth rate. Neanderthals had slightly bigger heads and brains than humans so they might have had greater difficulty in giving birth. Humans also benefited from their belief that a birth goddess would help them.  Without successful reproduction no species can flourish, or even survive. Homo sapiens were as subject to the biological imperative (commandment) to be fruitful and multiply as all other species. But the intelligent minds of Homo sapiens knew the dangers of childbirth. Infant mortality rates in most tribes were more than one in four. The maternal death rate for every four births was more than one in ten. Pregnancy was highly desired and birth anxiously awaited. Pregnant women naturally sought the physical help of their mothers and grandmothers who in turn sought the spiritual help of their now departed mothers and grandmothers. Among the earliest Gods were birth Goddesses. Small stone figures of very pregnant birth Goddesses often referred to as “Venus” figures go back 30-35,000 years. They are the first examples of iconic religion. The worship of spirits within natural phenomena does not need iconic representation. But birth rarely took place in the open or in public.  A birth Goddess needed to be present in some tangible way in order to ease the anxiety of women in labor. Even today in some African countries the maternal mortality rate is 3% per birth. A woman who gave birth to 8 children had a one in four chance of dying from giving birth. Any band would benefit even if the presence of Goddesses reduced that mortality rate by only 5%. Carvings in wood of birth Goddesses probably preceded stone statues by many millennia and may have originated 50-100,000 years ago.

A small birth Goddess that fits in the palm of  a woman’s hand, carved of Mammoth ivory with exaggerated sexual features was described in the May 14, 2009 issue of Nature. The figurine is dated to more than 35,000 years ago, when all three species were alive. Dozens of these figurines have been found at human sites, none at Neanderthal sites. Indeed, archeological evidence of religious rituals in general is much more extensive at human sites than at Neanderthal sites. Thus, religion may have been the single most significant factor in Neanderthal and Denisovan assimilation into humans rather than human assimilation into them.

For further information see my article in Popular Archeology  June, 2011 or my web site:


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