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ISLAMIC AND JEWISH FASTING: A Holy and Spiritually Healthy Diet

By Rabbi Allen S. Maller

Lack of self discipline will soon put more Americans in a hospital than all infectious diseases combined. About one third of the of the 600,000 Americans who died from various types of cancer last year, died due to their own life style behavior. Smoking, over eating and drinking, and physical inactivity did them in. The same set of self indulgences also afflicted those who died from heart disease last year.

The lack of self restraint so evident in much of modern life leads us first to pleasure seeking, and then increasingly to self induced suffering. Americans spend billions of dollars on pills, diet books and gym memberships but lack the self discipline to restrain themselves from over eating. And young people are leading the way in increasing self indulgence. In the majority of states (30 of 50) the percentage of overweight or obese children is now at or above 30%.

In our consumer driven cultural, we have largely lost the spiritual value of self restraint that is so important in the Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish and Muslim tradition. Self-restraint will be the single biggest factor influencing life expectancy in the 21st century. With self-restraint most people will have a good chance to live into their 80s or 90s.

However, indulgent pleasure seeking and lack of self restraint will increasingly cut short the lives of tens of millions of people. Almost all religions have always taught that self restraint is a virtue. Fasting and ritual dietary restrictions are the most wide spread example of spiritual self-restraint and self discipline.

The idea that people, even thin people, should restrict their culinary pleasures sounds outrageous to our 21st century ears. Dieting is hard enough. Why should we torture and afflict ourselves by fasting? Don’t most people think that being happy is the most important thing? Isn’t eating one of the most accessible pleasures we have? Why should religions restrict our pleasures? For example, why should the Torah decree a day of total denial of food and drink for every Jewish adult? (Leviticus 16:29, 23:27). For twenty-four hours Jews (over age 13 and in good health) are supposed to afflict their souls by abstaining from eating or drinking anything at all.

What we do not eat may be even more important than what we do eat. All animals eat, but only humans choose to not eat some foods that are both nutritious and tasty. Some people do not eat meat for religious/ethical reasons. Hindus do not eat beef, and Jews and Muslims do not eat pork, for religious/spiritual reasons.

On Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement Jews do not eat or drink anything at all for twenty-four hours. Every year for the entire the month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, abstaining from food and drink. The Qur’an says “Oh you who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may (learn) self-restraint,” Qur’an 2:183. What is the Torah and the Qur’an trying to teach us by decreeing the importance of fasting? What spiritual benefits occur when we fast?

First of all, fasting teaches compassion. It is easy to talk about the world’s problem of hunger. We can feel sorry that millions of people go to bed hungry each day. But not until one can actually feel it in one’s own body is the impact truly there. Compassion based on empathy is much stronger and more consistent than compassion based on pity. This feeling must lead to action. Fasting is never an end in itself; that’s why it has so many different outcomes. But all the other outcomes are of no real moral value if compassion is not enlarged and extended through fasting.

As the prophet Isaiah said, “The truth is that at the same time you fast, you pursue your own interests and oppress your workers. Your fasting makes you violent, and you quarrel and fight. The kind of fasting I want is this: remove the chains of oppression and the yoke of injustice, and let the oppressed go free. Share your food with the hungry and open your homes to the homeless poor”. (Isaiah 58:3-7)

Second, fasting is an exercise in will-power. Most people think they can’t fast because it’s too hard. But actually the discomfort of hunger pangs is relatively minor. A headache, muscle pains from too much exercise, and most certainly a toothache, are all more severe than the pains hunger produces.

I have on occasion fasted for three days, and found that after the first twenty four hours the pain decreases slightly as the stomach becomes numb. The reason it is so hard to fast is because it so easy to stop. Food and drink is all around, and in easy reach; all you have do is take a bite or a sip.

Thus the key to fasting is the will power to decide again and again not to eat or drink. Our society has increasingly become one of self indulgence. We lack self restraint. Fasting goes in direct opposition to our increasing “softness” in life. When people exercise their will-power and fast, they are affirming their self-control and celebrating mastery over themselves. We need continually to prove that we can do it, because we are aware of our frequent failures to be self-disciplined.

The third outcome of fasting is improved physical health. Of course, one twenty-four hour fast will not have any more effect than one day of exercise. Only prolonged and regular fasting promotes health. The annual fast on Yom Kippur can, however, awaken us to the importance of “how much and how often we eat or drink”.

For many years research has shown that when animals are somewhat underfed, receiving a balanced diet at below the normal quantity for maximum physical health, their life spans were prolonged from 50% to 100%. A 20 year study of rhesus monkeys published in Science in July 2009, found that the group on a reduced-calorie diet was two thirds less likely to die from cancer, heart disease or diabetes than those fed the normal diet.

Even if people do not follow a permanent restricted diet, the annual example of a 24 hour fast keeps the issue in mind. Also with all the additives placed in food these days we need to be reminded of the advantage of eating organically. More important, since our society has wide spread problems with overabundance, fasting provides a good lesson in the virtue of denial.

Health problems caused by overeating and over-drinking are the most rapidly growing health problems in affluent Western countries.Thus going without any food, or even water, for a twenty-four hour period challenges us to think very seriously about the benefits of the spiritual teaching; less is more.

Fourth in our list of outcomes, fasting is a positive struggle again our dependencies. We live in a consumer society. We are constantly bombarded by advertising telling us that we must have this or that to be healthy, happy, popular or wise. By fasting we assert that we need not be totally dependent on external things, even such essentials as food. If our most basic need for food and drink can be suspended for twenty-four hours, how much more our needs for all the nonessentials.

Judaism doesn’t advocate asceticism as an end in itself. In fact it’s against Jewish law to deny ourselves normal pleasures. But in our overheated consumer society it is necessary periodically to turn off the constant pressure to consume, and to remind ourselves forcibly that “Man does not live by bread alone.” (Deuteronomy 8:3)

Fifth, fasting serves as a penance. Though self inflicted pain may alleviate some guilt, it is much better to reduce one’s guilt by offsetting acts of righteousness to others. This is why, for Jews, contributing to charity is an important part of Yom Kippur. The same is true for Muslims during Ramadan. Indeed, fasting that doesn’t increase compassion is ignored by God. Also, the concept of fasting as penance helps us understand that our suffering can be beneficial.

Contemporary culture desires happiness above all else. Any suffering is seen as unnecessary and indeed evil. Though we occasionally hear people echo values from the past that suffering can help one grow, or that an existence unalloyed with pain would lack certain qualities of greatness, many today seem to think that the primary goal in life is ” to always be happy and free of all discomfort.”

The satisfaction one derives from the self-induced pain of fasting provides insight into a better way of reacting to the externally caused suffering we have to experience anyway. Taking a pill is not always the best way to alleviate pain especially if by doing so we allay the symptoms without reaching the root cause.

Sixth, fasting is good for the soul. It often serves as an aid for spiritual experiences. For most people, especially those who have not fasted regularly before, hunger pains are a distraction. People who are not by nature spiritual/emotional individuals will probably find that a one-day fast is insufficient to help induce an altered state of consciousness. Those who have fasted regularly on Yom Kippur might like to try a two to three day fast (liquids permitted). It is best to go about your daily activities and devote your late evening or early morning to meditation and prayer.

Since you have already fasted for Yom Kippur the easiest way is to simply extend the fast another thirty-six to forty-eight hours. We are prohibited to fast prior to Yom Kippur; eating a good meal prior to Yom Kippur Eve is a mitzvah (religious duty), because Judaism like Islam opposes excessive asceticism.

The seventh outcome of fasting for Jews is the performance of a mitzvah (a religious duty), which is, after all, the one fundamental reason for fasting on Yom Kippur. We do not do mitzvoth (religious duties) in order to benefit ourselves, but because our duty as Jews requires that we do them. Fasting is a very personal mitzvah, with primarily personal consequences. Fasting on Yom Kippur is a personal offering to the God of Israel from each member of the family of Israel.

For over 100 generations Jews have fasted on this day. A personal act of fasting is part of the Jewish people’s covenant with God. The principal reason to fast is to fulfill a mitzvah. The outcome of your fast can be any of a half dozen forms of self-fulfillment. But simply knowing that you have done one of your duties as an adult Jew is the most basic and primary outcome of all.

Finally, fasting should be combined with prayer and the study of Sacred Scriptures (the five books of Moses specifically or Scriptural texts in general). Indeed, the more one studies, the less one needs to fast. A medieval text states, “Better to eat a little and study twice as much, for the study of Torah is superior to fasting.”

Fasting is a very personal, experiential offering. However, though study is also a personal experience, it takes place with a text and/or a teacher. The Divine is often more readily and truly experienced in dialogue with others than in solitary meditation.

Rabbi Maller’s web site is

Earthpages does not render medical, legal, financial or other professional services. Those in need of expert assistance are advised to consult an appropriate licensed professional. TOU

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Looking Good Feeling Great Ladies 50 and Over

women50plus1Copyright © Nina Bagnall, 2012.

Ladies, when we reach our fifties we need to be more self aware.

The appearance of a lot of women when they reach their middle forties seems to change. Inexplicably they, with gusto I might add, suddenly begin to look older.

It might have something to do with how our bodies start to change and it gets to be more of a chore to keep that stomach flat, hips thin and bottoms pert. Does this sound familiar? “I don’t care anymore, I just want to eat and drink what I want and not worry about my figure.”

Our bodies are a miracle, of which we should all be very proud. It’s not just for the young to be thinking of their hair, figure, and what they eat.

This practise should be carried through no matter what age we have reached.

Never should looking after your self be an “afterthought,” as it often comes to be later in life.

Its time, ladies, to bring this afterthought to the forefront of your life and to prioritize your day by setting aside time in the morning and evening for the body, mind and soul.

Stop lamenting, visit:

Remember the body has to have balance otherwise it’s out of sync.

Buy the book. It will act as your reference bible. You will wonder how you ever got along without it.


The Healthy Vegan: What you never knew about veganism

A diet rich in soy and whey protein, found in ...

A diet rich in soy and whey protein, found in products such as soy milk and low-fat yogurt, has been shown to reduce breast cancer incidence in rats. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Copyright © Galina Pembroke, 2009.

We must do more than take the hot dog out of the bun; we must find a complete protein to fill it with.

I meet Karen at our favorite coffee shop. Karen adores their Fair Trade hot chocolate. I do too, but this isn’t the only reason we frequent this trendy café. On the counter I find a large metal jug of soy milk. Jackpot! I pour a decadent amount into my organic decaffeinated coffee. I don’t drink milk or consume any dairy. Neither do I eat meat. I am a vegan.

Many people think a vegan diet isn’t capable of meeting all nutritional needs, especially protein. But it isn’t true. In a June 2003 issue of JAMA, the Dietitians of Canada agreed that: “Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.” The key words here are well planned. We must do more than take the hot dog out of the bun; we must find a complete protein to fill it with.

Together with fats, protein stops carbohydrates from causing an insulin Roller Coaster. My soy milk coffee topper has both. Plus it is far from being a second-rate substitute for dairy fats and protein. Unlike other beans, the soybean carries the entire chain of essential amino acids, otherwise known as complete protein. Karen accepts this, but her eyes raise when I tell her that my soy milk has 10.98 grams of protein per cup. She remembers that her 2 percent milk has 8.6 grams of protein and 5 grams of fat. “Soy milk has almost the same amount of fat at 4.7,”  I share. “But it’s low in saturated fat and has no cholesterol. You’ll need to switch to 1 percent or skim milk to limit that unhealthy fat, but if you don’t want cholesterol you’ll have to choose soy. Even skim milk has cholesterol.”

“Are soy products the only way you can get complete protein?” asks Karen. I shake my head. “Hemp products also contain complete protein.  I have a tablespoon of hemp oil every day. And I know which foods to combine to get complete protein: Tempeh burgers on a whole wheat bun, corn tacos with pinto beans, brown rice with almonds and cashews-the list goes on.”

“Sure, but dairy is the absolute best source of calcium right?” asked Karen. I proceeded to explain that equivalent amounts of calcium could be found in soy versions of both milk and cheese. ” But I don’t want to limit myself to soy.” protests Karen. I understand. “There are an enormous variety of foods available that help provide the 800mg of calcium necessary to meet the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake. These include egg substitute, almonds, hazelnuts, figs, spinach, dried apricots and sunflower seeds.”  I remind her that the Endangered Species Chocolate Company, which she respects for being Free Trade, is also vegan.

“Okay,” she concedes. “A vegan diet can provide adequate protein and calcium, but isn’t it better to get your iron from meat?” I think for a minute. The iron from meat is more bio-available than from vegetables. “On the surface, one cup of trail mix has more iron than a serving of beef. Yet to actually get this amount I need to eat it with a source of vitamin C, which increases absorption.  This food combining isn’t always necessary though. Many iron rich foods, such as broccoli and bok choy, are high in both iron and vitamin C. I’ll never eat these with soy or any other high calcium source though, since calcium decreases iron absorption.”

“Yes, but even with all your attention to detail. How can you be healthy without B12, which isn’t found in today’s plant foods.” Ostensibly Karen has a point. Though the bacteria in the small intestine produce small quantities of B12, I can’t rely on this to prevent deficiency. Getting B12 is challenging. Thankfully I can small amounts from fermented foods like tempeh and miso, and obtain the rest from fortified cereals, soy and mock meat. For extra security I take a supplement.

“Sounds complicated. Like you’re following the rules of a secret society. Do you have to be sworn in?” laughs Karen. She may be joking, but some people truly believe veganism is a cult. Veganism is a reasonable and logical alternative to an omnivorous diet, and it’s becoming more mainstream than ever. Alicia Silverstone and Shakira are vegans, and so are Carl Lewis and Canadian Ironman triathlete Brendan Brazier.  “Anyone can go vegan,” I tell her. “There are more foods, books and resources than ever.”

Selected Sources

Brazier, Brendan. The High Performance Vegan Athlete: It is possible. The Los Angeles Vegetarian Society, 2003

Henkel, John. Soy; Health Claims for Soy Protein, Questions About Other Components.  FDA Consumer magazine. US Food and Drug Administration. May-June 2000

Calcium.  USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. 2004

Iron. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. 2004

Dietary Reference Intakes-Calcium and Related Nutrients . National Institute of Nutrition. Ontario:2001

Mangels, Reed, Ph.D., R.D. .Iron in the Vegan Diet. The Vegetarian Resource Group. Maryland: 2003

Celebrity Vegans

Ives, Brian and Bottomley, C. Shakira: Live in Your Living Room. VH1: 2004

Parsons, Sarah. Celebs’ Quick Slim-Down Diet Secrets: Alicia Silverstone 2004

Brazier, Brendan. Thrive: A Guide to Optimal Health and Performance Through Plant-Based Whole Foods. Oceanside Publishing: 2004

Bennett, Jannequin. Carl Lewis On Being Vegan. Excerpt from Very Vegetarian. Rutledge Hill Press: 2002

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Galina Pembroke was an internationally published writer specializing in health. She passed away on September 12, 2009 at the young age of 34 after a very brief illness.

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Holistic Beauty

Beauty by Nicola Rinaldi via Flickr

Beauty by Nicola Rinaldi via Flickr

Copyright © Galina Pembroke, 2009.

Why beauty comes from within

From tradition to trends, there’s always been a secret knowledge of the parallel between good health and beauty. The oldest of this knowledge may be found in the ancient science of Ayurvedic medicine.

Youth ends at 60

Dr. Scott Gerson, medical director of the National Institute of Ayurvedic medicine, writes that “According to Ayurveda, youth ends at 60. ” This contrasts dramatically with television images showing youthful vigor declining after 30. Isn’t this youthful vigor a measure of beauty? In Ayurvedic medicine, the key to this outer radiance is internal balance.

Part of this balance is obtaining health of both mind and body. The first step in attaining this goal is through detoxification. The Ayurvedic term for this is pancha karma. Generally this is aided or performed by clinical ayurvedic specialists. The treatments usually consist of a warm oil massage, special cleansing diets, lots of pure fresh water, breathing practices and meditation. After gaining basic knowledge of these steps through an ayurvedic specialist, we are encouraged to regularly use basic Ayurvedic grooming techniques. These consist of massaging oil to the body, bathing daily, rubbing the body with herbal bath powder and applying oil to scalp.

Massage is an essential component in Ayurvedic medicine, and the addition of herbal extracts and essential oils increases its already impressive healing capacities. According to Dr. Nancy Lonsdorf, author of A Woman’s Best Medicine (New York: Tarcher/Putnam) the benefits of herbalized oil massage include the following: “Improving circulation in the body, providing a purifying and cleansing influence to the physiology, increasing the secretion of hormones from the skin and maintaining the suppleness and youthfulness of the skin.”

The Ayurvedic diet also aids in keeping us youthful and vibrant. The Ayurvedic diet is rich in disease-killing antioxidants, as it encourages eating many fruits and vegetables. These antioxidants also protect the cells. This is important to maintaining beauty, since cellular death is responsible for both the inner and outer effects of the aging process.

Thriving during menopause

For a portion of women, one of the biggest traumas during aging is menopause. Yet, as Dr. Sharon Lieberman reminds us in her book Get off the Menopause Roller Coaster (Arizona: Avery books), “menopause is not a disease.” In fact, the methods we use to ease ourselves through this transition may aid in improved health and enhanced beauty.

Along with proper diet and exercise, the most pivotal of these methods is supplement use. Since estrogen-loss is responsible for the unpleasant symptoms of menopause, considering replacing this estrogen is worthwhile. Yet conventional Hormone Replacement Therapy is dubious in its side effects. Thankfully we have other options. “For most people black cohosh and chasteberry work really well for menopause, and if you add some ginseng it can really help,’ says Dr. Lieberman. “Black cohosh is completely safe and effective.” We can trust our source. Besides being an author, Dr. Lieberman has a Ph.D in Clinical Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and is the recipient  of the National Nutritional Foods Association 2003 Clinician of the Year Award. The positive effects of black cohosh extend beyond its estrogen balancing abilities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, black cohosh is one of the herbs that prevent premature aging and hair loss. Dried rehmannia and Chinese yam are other examples.

“The other herb that I love is Ginseng,” reveals Dr. Lieberman. “Ginseng  is a wonderful supplement for women to take, and it helps  control hot flashes.”  Remarking on the power of Ginseng, Dr. Lieberman says: “It’s one of the few herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine that’s actually used alone. Most Traditional Chinese Medicine is taken as a formula, but the strength and adaptability of ginseng is sufficient enough to merit its independence. Ginseng is an adaptogen. Adaptogens are aptly named, as they adapt to a broad range of problems. They achieve this by facilitating overall balance. For example, ginseng has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels in Type 2 diabetes. Yet if you have normal blood sugar but are stressed, ginseng will lessen tension without dramatically dropping blood sugar. Other studies, quoted in The Merck Manual of Medical Information, suggest that ginseng also increases HDL (healthy) cholesterol.

Ginseng is also aids in attractiveness. “Ginseng has long been used by men and women as an anti-aging tonic,” says Dr. Lieberman. “It’s  great for your hair, skin and nails.”  Though ginseng is completely safe, it’s important to select the best quality. Dr. Lieberman suggests Panax ginseng, because it’s the most widely studied. She also advises choosing 8 percent ginsenosides (the active ingredient in ginseng).

For those who prefer traditional western methods, Dr. Lieberman says: “If you take nothing else take a good multivitamin and multimineral complex.” Specifically, she suggests a “4-6 a day multivitamin/multimineral, since you’re not going to get what you need through food anyway.”

De-Stress Through Diet

If you want to slow down the aging process, lessen stress. In 2004 a study at the University of California at San Francisco found that chronic stress appears to hasten the shriveling of the tips of the bundles of genes inside cells. This in turn shortens their life span and speeds the body’s deterioration.  Popular methods of stress reduction include meditation and exercise, even caffeine reduction. But a complete overhaul of diet?

Amanda Geary, founder of the UK’s Food and Mood Project, thinks this is a splendid solution. The Food and Mood Project recruited 200 individuals between the ages of 26 and 55 who lived in London or SE England. They found that the effects of diet on stress were substantial. Says Geary: “From the Food and Mood Survey results, those using this form of self-help found that cutting down or avoiding potential food stressors like sugar (80%), caffeine (79%), alcohol (55%) and chocolate (53%) and having more food supporters like water (80%), vegetables (78%), fruit (72%) and oil rich fish (52%) had the most beneficial effects on mental health.”

A side effect of this stress-less eating is that it improves overall health. We’ve been meaning to eat more veggies and drink more water anyway. Eating oil rich fish may be a different matter. This is a low priority for most, and the controversy over contamination may be keeping us away from the tuna aisles. Thankfully, the essential fatty acids-omega 3’s in particular- that are responsible for the mood elevating effects of fish come from other sources. Flaxseed, for example, is superior to fish in its quantity of omega 3’s. Dark leafy green vegetables and walnuts also contain linolenic acid that the body converts to the same type of omega-3 found in fish.

Omega 3’s are most active in the tissues of the blood vessels, immune system, eyes and skin. Due to this, regardless of why you initially take omega 3’s you’ll receive the side benefit of healthier skin. Udo Erasmus, author of Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill (Burnaby: Alive Books) describes essential fatty acids as “natures perfect moisturizer.” Why? When we have the right amount of omega 3’s they help our skin form a barrier against moisture loss.

Beauty may seem like a dubious motivation for keeping healthy, but it’s a definite consequence. We may not want to throw out our beauty creams just yet, but we need to acknowledge that they’re most effective when applied to a healthy body.

~ ~ ~

Galina Pembroke was an internationally published writer specializing in health. She passed away on September 12, 2009 at the young age of 34 after a very brief illness.


Review – Animals: Friend or Food?

Goat kids will stay with their mother until th...

Image via Wikipedia

Title: Animals: Friend or Food?
Writer/Director: Jason Young

Additional Authors: Kent Martin, Jason Young
Editor: Lawrence Jackman

Media: VHS, 74 min. 2 sec.
Produced by: National Film Board of Canada, 2003

In this National Film Board of Canada production Jason Young buys a farm to prove to himself that he can kill the meat he eats. Footage of animals being treated harshly should upset some viewers. Ethical issues are explored, particularly the Biblical view of animals and humanity’s evolutionary place at the top of the food chain.

Young overcomes his initial resistance as he makes his first few kills. He doesn’t practice any organized religion but likes the idea of ritual. From this he creates an outdoor killing space called the “sanctuary,” premised on the belief that animals will be happier in nature just prior to their death. The idea backfires, however, when one pig is forcibly dragged out squealing to the sanctuary. This is sad footage. And why didn’t Young just kill the poor animal right away instead of prolonging its suffering with a prefabricated philosophy of kindness?

On the whole, however, the cinematic treatment of the slain animals is respectful. But it is difficult. The paradox of not wanting to harm innocent creatures while meat-eating doesn’t really disappear, despite Young’s running philosophical commentary. And Young doesn’t want it to. To his credit he discusses his own misgivings and pangs of guilt.

This documentary is not for the faint of heart. But it wouldn’t be fair to confuse the film’s harsh content with its educational value. It is extraordinary, if upsetting.


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Shocked Hindus demand UK Parliamentary enquiry into chicken injected with beef

Photo Credit: hddod / poppy

Photo Credit: hddod / poppy

Special to

Perturbed Hindus have demanded Parliamentary enquiry into the reported sale of chicken secretly injected with beef and pork in United Kingdom.

Acclaimed Hindu statesman Rajan Zed, in a statement in Nevada (USA) today, said that it was highly disturbing for the people of faith that this illegal act was allowed to go on for quite some time. He demanded immediate halt to the sale of such misleading products and strong action against those found responsible.

Rajan Zed, who is president of Universal Society of Hinduism, said that for mercantile greed, some businesses played with the sentiments of the faithful. UK should have better enforcement and efficient check system so that illegal acts like this did not happen in the future,

In a study, United Kingdom Government’s Food Standards Agency headquartered in London indicated that proteins from beef or pork were also present in injection powders that claimed to contain only chicken protein. Agency states that it is carrying out further studies and gathering more information in partnership with other European Member States.

London based “The Independent” newspaper says that this fraud was run by firms in three European Union states to fetch a higher price for chicken breasts. “The fraud has been taking place for at least the past two years, and still continues because of inaction by the authorities in three EU states, believed to be Germany, Netherlands and Spain,” it wrote in its June four edition. This adulteration was first detected in UK in 2001.

Cow is held sacred by Hindus and they do not eat beef.


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