People break fast after evening prayer outside Eyup Mosque during the holy month of Ramadan on June 15, 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey. The holy month of Ramadan is observed by Muslims across Turkey and worldwide. A month of fasting takes place to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad and is considered one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Lack of self discipline will soon put more Americans in a hospital than all infectious diseases combined. About one third of the of the 600,000+ Americans who died from various types of cancer in 2010, died due to their own life style behavior. Smoking, over eating and drinking, and physical inactivity will do them in. The same set of self indulgences will also afflict those who died from heart disease last year.
The lack of self restraint so evident in much of modern life leads us first to pleasure seeking, and then increasingly to self induced suffering. Americans spend billions of dollars on pills, diet books and gym memberships but lack the self discipline to restrain themselves from over eating. And young people are leading the way in increasing self indulgence. In the majority of states (30 of 50) the percentage of overweight or obese children is now at or above 30%.
In our consumer driven cultural, we have largely lost the spiritual value of self restraint that is so important in the Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish and Muslim tradition. Self-restraint will be the single biggest factor influencing life expectancy in the 21st century. With self-restraint most people will have a good chance to live into their 80s or 90s.
However, indulgent pleasure seeking and lack of self restraint will increasingly cut short the lives of tens of millions of people. Almost all religions have always taught that self restraint is a virtue. Fasting and ritual dietary restrictions are the most wide spread example of spiritual self-restraint and self discipline.
The idea that people, even thin people, should restrict their culinary pleasures sounds outrageous to our 21st century ears. Dieting is hard enough. Why should we torture and afflict ourselves by fasting? Don’t most people think that being happy is the most important thing? Isn’t eating one of the most accessible pleasures we have? Why should religions restrict our pleasures? For example, why should the Torah decree a day of total denial of food and drink for every Jewish adult? (Leviticus 16:29, 23:27). For twenty-four hours Jews (over age 12 and in good health) are supposed to afflict their souls by abstaining from eating or drinking anything at all.
What we do not eat may be even more important than what we do eat. All animals eat, but only humans choose to not eat some foods that are both nutritious and tasty. Some people do not eat meat for religious/ethical reasons. Hindus do not eat beef, and Jews and Muslims do not eat pork, for religious/spiritual reasons. And on Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement Jews do not eat or drink anything at all for twenty-four hours.
Every year for the entire the month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, abstaining from food and drink. The Qur’an says “Oh you who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may (learn) self-restraint,” Qur’an 2:183. What is the Torah and the Qur’an trying to teach us by decreeing the importance of fasting? What spiritual benefits occur when we fast?
First of all, fasting teaches compassion. It is easy to talk about the world’s problem of hunger. We can feel sorry that millions of people go to bed hungry each day. But not until one can actually feel it in one’s own body is the impact truly there. Compassion based on empathy is much stronger and more consistent than compassion based on pity. This feeling must lead to action. Fasting is never an end in itself; that’s why it has so many different outcomes.
But all the other outcomes are of no real moral value if compassion is not enlarged and extended through fasting. As the prophet Isaiah said, “The truth is that at the same time you fast, you pursue your own interests and oppress your workers. Your fasting makes you violent, and you quarrel and fight. The kind of fasting I want is this: remove the chains of oppression and the yoke of injustice, and let the oppressed go free. Share your food with the hungry and open your homes to the homeless poor”. (Isaiah 58:3-7)
Second, fasting is an exercise in will-power. Most people think they can’t fast because it’s too hard. But actually the discomfort of hunger pangs is relatively minor. A headache, muscle pains from too much exercise, and most certainly a toothache, are all more severe than the pains hunger produces. I have on occasion fasted for three days, and found that after the first twenty four hours the pain decreases slightly as the stomach becomes numb. The reason it is so hard to fast is because it so easy to stop. Food and drink is all around, and in easy reach; all you have do is take a bite or a sip. Thus the key to fasting is the will power to decide again and again not to eat or drink.
Our society has increasingly become one of self indulgence. We lack self restraint. Fasting goes in direct opposition to our increasing “softness” in life. When people exercise their will-power and fast, they are affirming their self-control and celebrating mastery over themselves. We need continually to prove that we can do it, because we are aware of our frequent failures to be self-disciplined.
The third outcome of fasting is improved physical health. Of course, one twenty-four hour fast will not have any more effect than one day of exercise. Only prolonged and regular fasting promotes health. The annual fast on Yom Kippur can, however, awaken us to the importance of “how much and how often we eat or drink”.
For many years research has shown that when animals are somewhat underfed, receiving a balanced diet at below the normal quantity for maximum physical health, their life spans were prolonged from 50% to 100%. A 20 year study of rhesus monkeys published in Science in July 2009, found that the group on a reduced-calorie diet was two thirds less likely to die from cancer, heart disease or diabetes than those fed the normal diet.
Even if people do not follow a permanent restricted diet, the annual example of a 24 hour fast keeps the issue in mind. Also with all the additives placed in food these days we need to be reminded of the advantage of eating organically. More important, since our society has wide spread problems with overabundance, fasting provides a good lesson in the virtue of denial. Health problems caused by overeating and over-drinking are the most rapidly growing health problems in affluent Western countries.
A good example is the increasing spread of diabetes. More than sixteen million adults in the United State have diabetes, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. One in thirteen adults in the Western World now have diabetes. According to a 2011 report from the World Health Organization, diabetes deaths will double by 2030. A substantial number of future diabetes cases are preventable. These people will have an illness which is serious, debilitating, and shortens their lives. But it doesn’t have to happen if we submit our desires for God’s desires. Thus going without any food, or even water, for a twenty-four hour period challenges us to think very seriously about the benefits of the spiritual teaching; less is more.
Fourth in our list of outcomes, fasting is a positive struggle again our dependencies. We live in a consumer society. We are constantly bombarded by advertising telling us that we must have this or that to be healthy, happy, popular or wise. By fasting we assert that we need not be totally dependent on external things, even such essentials as food. If our most basic need for food and drink can be suspended for twenty-four hours, how much more our needs for all the non-essentials.
Judaism doesn’t advocate asceticism as an end in itself. In fact it’s against Jewish law to deny ourselves normal pleasures. But in our overheated consumer society it is necessary periodically to turn off the constant pressure to consume, and to remind ourselves forcibly that “Man does not live by bread alone.” (Deuteronomy 8:3)
Fifth, fasting serves as a penance. Though self inflicted pain may alleviate some guilt, it is much better to reduce one’s guilt by offsetting acts of righteousness to others. This is why, for Jews, contributing to charity is an important part of Yom Kippur. The same is true for Muslims during Ramadan. Indeed, fasting that doesn’t increase compassion is ignored by God. Also, the concept of fasting as penance helps us understand that our suffering can be beneficial. Contemporary culture desires happiness above all else. Any suffering is seen as unnecessary and indeed evil.
Though we occasionally hear people echo values from the past that suffering can help one grow, or that an existence unalloyed with pain would lack certain qualities of greatness, many today seem to think that the primary goal in life is ” to always be happy and free of all discomfort.” The satisfaction one derives from the self-induced pain of fasting provides insight into a better way of reacting to the externally caused suffering we have to experience anyway. Taking a pill is not always the best way to alleviate pain especially if by doing so we allay the symptoms without reaching the root cause.
The sixth outcome of fasting for Jews is the performance of a mitzvah (a religious duty), which is, after all, the one fundamental reason for fasting on Yom Kippur. We do not do mitzvoth (religious duties) in order to benefit ourselves, but because our duty as Jews requires that we do them. Fasting is a very personal mitzvah, with primarily personal consequences. Fasting on Yom Kippur is a personal offering to the God of Israel from each member of the family of Israel. For over 100 generations Jews have fasted on this day. A personal act of fasting is part of the Jewish people’s covenant with God. The principal reason to fast is to fulfill a mitzvah. The outcome of your fast can be any of a half dozen forms of self-fulfillment. But simply knowing that you have done one of your duties as an adult Jew is the most basic and primary outcome of all.
Finally, fasting should be combined with prayer and the study of Sacred Scriptures (the five books of Moses specifically or Scriptural texts in general). Indeed, the more one studies, the less one needs to fast. A medieval text states, “Better to eat a little and study twice as much, for the study of Torah is superior to fasting.”
Fasting is a very personal, experiential offering. However, though study is also a personal experience, it takes place with a text and/or a teacher. The Divine is often more readily and truly experienced in dialogue with others than in solitary meditation.
Rabbi Maller’s web site is: www.rabbimaller.com